Hemp plants are varieties of Cannabis sativa L. Hemp is a dioecious plant, which means it can be separated into male and female plants. Hemp plants have served a wide variety of purposes for more than 10,000 years for fiber (from the plant’s stems) and protein (from seeds). Hemp fibers can be used to make countless household items, including paper, clothing, furnishing fabric, rope, food, and building materials.


Nabilone (Cesamet) (Figure 1), is a synthetic dimethylheptyl analogue of THC (British Medical Association 1997) that displays greater potency and prolonged half-life. Serum levels peak in 1–4 hours (Lemberger et al 1982). It was also primarily developed as an anti-emetic in chemotherapy, and was recently re-approved for this indication in the USA. Prior case reports have noted analgesic effects in case reports in neuropathic pain (Notcutt et al 1997) and other pain disorders (Berlach et al 2006). Sedation and dysphoria were prominent sequelae. An RCT of nabilone in 41 post-operative subjects actually documented exacerbation of pain scores after thrice daily dosing (Beaulieu 2006) (Table 1). An abstract of a study of 82 cancer patients on nabilone claimed improvement in pain levels after varying periods of follow-up compared to patients treated without this agent (Maida 2007). However, 17 subjects dropped out, and the study was neither randomized nor controlled, and therefore is not included in Table 1.
Everything you need to know about marijuana (cannabis) Marijuana, or cannabis, is the most commonly used illicit drug in the world. It alters the mood and affects nearly every organ in the body. With at least 120 active compounds, marijuana may have health benefits as well as risks. We describe these, addiction, and withdrawal. Learn more about cannabis here. Read now
Ten years ago hemp cultivation was illegal in Germany, England, Canada, Australia, and other countries. Essential to overcoming governmental reluctance in each country was the presentation of an image that was business-oriented, and conservative. The merits of environmentalism have acquired some political support, but unless there is a reasonable possibility that hemp cultivation is perceived as potentially economically viable, there is limited prospect of having anti-hemp laws changed. Strong support from business and farm groups is indispensable; support from pro-marijuana interests and what are perceived of as fringe groups is generally counterproductive. It is a combination of prospective economic benefit coupled with assurance that hemp cultivation will not detrimentally affect the enforcement of marijuana legislation that has led most industrially advanced countries to reverse prohibitions against growing hemp. Should the US permit commercial hemp cultivation to resume, it will likely be for the same reasons.
With marijuana, apparently, we’re still waiting for this information. It’s hard to study a substance that until very recently has been almost universally illegal. And the few studies we do have were done mostly in the nineteen-eighties and nineties, when cannabis was not nearly as potent as it is now. Because of recent developments in plant breeding and growing techniques, the typical concentration of THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, has gone from the low single digits to more than twenty per cent—from a swig of near-beer to a tequila shot.
The results of the three large European cohort studies have been confirmed in two smaller New Zealand birth cohorts. Arsenault and colleagues (2002) reported a prospective study of the relationship between adolescent cannabis use and psychosis in a New Zealand birth cohort (n = 759). They found a relationship between cannabis use by age 15 and an increased risk of psychotic symptoms by age 26. The relationship did not change when they controlled for other drug use, but it was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for psychotic symptoms at age 11. The latter probably reflected the small number of psychotic disorders observed in the sample. Fergusson et al. (2003) found a relationship between cannabis dependence at age 18 and later symptoms that included those in the psychotic spectrum reported at age 21 in the Christchurch birth cohort. Fergusson and colleagues adjusted for a large number of potential confounding variables, including self-reported psychotic symptoms at the previous assessment, other drug use and other psychiatric disorders, but whether the association represents a link between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms specifically, or more general psychiatric morbidity, remains unclear.
Receptra offers their products in two separate lines. One is the Active Lifestyle range, which provides lower concentrations for daily use, and another is Health and Wellness, which is for far more intense use. It is incredibly difficult for me to manage my back pain with a low concentration of CBD usually, so, I went with the 3000 mg concentration available in their Health and Wellness line.    

His third question is whether cannabis serves as a gateway drug. There are two possibilities. The first is that marijuana activates certain behavioral and neurological pathways that ease the onset of more serious addictions. The second possibility is that marijuana offers a safer alternative to other drugs: that if you start smoking pot to deal with chronic pain you never graduate to opioids.


Just read your article about CBD oil and checked the label on the oil I bought 9 months ago from a legal dispensary in Pendleton, Oregon. Across from the Subway. It lists herbs and supplements long before CBD oil and it is a derivative of Hemp oil. I paid $52 for one ounce (30 ml). I had not done any research prior to my purchase and relied on the folks at the marijuana shop to sell me a good product. Buyer beware is the best advice I got from this article. I have not achieved any pain relief from this product and use about 1 ml under my tongue with the dropper in the bottle. I intend to find a full spectrum CBD oil and I hope to notice a difference in pain relief. Thanks for the great information.
^ Acj, Zondo (2017-08-02). "Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development and Others v Prince (Clarke, Stobbs and Thorpe Intervening) (Doctors of Life International Inc as Amicus Curiae); National Director of Public Prosecutions and Others v Rubin; National Director of Public Prosecutions and Others v Acton and Others". The Constitutional Court of South Africa.
The United Kingdom and Germany resumed commercial production in the 1990s. British production is mostly used as bedding for horses; other uses are under development. Companies in Canada, the UK, the United States, and Germany, among many others, process hemp seed into a growing range of food products and cosmetics; many traditional growing countries still continue to produce textile-grade fibre.
Messamore theorizes that THC may interfere with the brain’s anti-inflammatory mechanisms, resulting in damage to nerve cells and blood vessels. Is this the reason, Berenson wonders, for the rising incidence of schizophrenia in the developed world, where cannabis use has also increased? In the northern parts of Finland, incidence of the disease has nearly doubled since 1993. In Denmark, cases have risen twenty-five per cent since 2000. In the United States, hospital emergency rooms have seen a fifty-per-cent increase in schizophrenia admissions since 2006. If you include cases where schizophrenia was a secondary diagnosis, annual admissions in the past decade have increased from 1.26 million to 2.1 million.
The major symptom of many short and long-term illnesses is pain, both chronic and acute. Disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis, Diabetic Neuropathy and others, whether derived from the primary or central nervous system, leave patients with unrelenting pain not easily controlled by common pain medications. Although few randomized clinical trials over sufficiently extended periods of time measuring the effects of cannabidiol oil intake on pain management exist, preliminary studies suggest the use of CBD’s in chronic pain management to be useful allowing an increase in quality of life and the ability to rest without pain.  There is some research out there that suggests this might be a good solution for those that are sensitive to other medications as well.  We have attached some Medical publications, News Articles and some videos that touch on this subject.
Can cannabis help treat psoriasis? The active cannabinoids in cannabis may be an effective treatment for psoriasis. Research shows that they offer potential health benefits that could relieve the symptoms of psoriasis. They may be able to reduce inflammation and itching, control pain, and even heal wounds. Learn more about cannabis for psoriasis here. Read now

Access to viable seed may present a challenge for research programs and commercial growers. To implement commercial and research hemp programs, farmers need access to seeds that are guaranteed to produce plants that fall under the legal definition of hemp. These seeds can be difficult to obtain, however, because hemp is still regulated under the federal Controlled Substances Act. In response to this problem, Colorado’s governor sent a letter to the U.S. secretary of agriculture in 2014 requesting the federal government address hemp seed regulations.
Researchers think that CBD interacts with receptors in your brain and immune system. Receptors are tiny proteins attached to your cells that receive chemical signals from different stimuli and help your cells respond. This creates anti-inflammatory and painkilling effects that help with pain management. This means that CBD oil may benefit people with chronic pain, such as chronic back pain.
Very few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted using smoked cannabis (Campbell et al 2001) despite many anecdotal claims (Grinspoon and Bakalar 1997). One such study documented slight weight gain in HIV/AIDS subjects with no significant immunological sequelae (Abrams et al 2003). A recent brief trial of smoked cannabis (3.56% THC cigarettes 3 times daily) in HIV-associated neuropathy showed positive results on daily pain, hyperalgesia and 30% pain reduction (vs 15% in placebo) in 50 subjects over a treatment course of only 5 days (Abrams et al 2007) (Table 1). This short clinical trial also demonstrated prominent adverse events associated with intoxication. In Canada, 21 subjects with chronic pain sequentially smoked single inhalations of 25 mg of cannabis (0, 2.5, 6.0, 9.5% THC) via a pipe three times a day for 5 days to assess effects on pain (Ware et al 2007) with results the authors termed “modest”: no changes were observed in acute neuropathic pain scores, and a very low number of subjects noted 30% pain relief at the end of the study (Table 1). Even after political and legal considerations, it remains extremely unlikely that crude cannabis could ever be approved by the FDA as a prescription medicine as outlined in the FDA Botanical Guidance document (Food and Drug Administration 2004; Russo 2006b), due to a lack of rigorous standardization of the drug, an absence of Phase III clinical trials, and pulmonary sequelae (bronchial irritation and cough) associated with smoking (Tashkin 2005). Although cannabis vaporizers reduce potentially carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons, they have not been totally eliminated by this technology (Gieringer et al 2004; Hazekamp et al 2006).
Another claim is that Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America at that time, had invested heavily in DuPont's new synthetic fiber, nylon, and believed[dubious – discuss] that the replacement of the traditional resource, hemp, was integral to the new product's success.[128][133][134][135][136][137][138][139] The company DuPont and many industrial historians dispute a link between nylon and hemp, nylon became immediately a scarce commodity.[clarification needed] Nylon had characteristics that could be used for toothbrushes (sold from 1938) and very thin nylon fiber could compete with silk and rayon in various textiles normally not produced from hemp fiber, such as very thin stockings for women.[132][140][141][142][143]
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