There are many varieties of cannabis infusions owing to the variety of non-volatile solvents used.[189] The plant material is mixed with the solvent and then pressed and filtered to express the oils of the plant into the solvent. Examples of solvents used in this process are cocoa butter, dairy butter, cooking oil, glycerine, and skin moisturizers. Depending on the solvent, these may be used in cannabis foods or applied topically.[190]
^ Gobbi, Gabriella; Atkin, Tobias; Zytynski, Tomasz; Wang, Shouao; Askari, Sorayya; Boruff, Jill; Ware, Mark; Marmorstein, Naomi; Cipriani, Andrea; Dendukuri, Nandini; Mayo, Nancy (13 February 2019). "Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Risk of Depression, Anxiety, and Suicidality in Young Adulthood". JAMA Psychiatry. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.4500. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
Berenson thinks that we are far too sanguine about this link. He wonders how large the risk is, and what might be behind it. In one of the most fascinating sections of “Tell Your Children,” he sits down with Erik Messamore, a psychiatrist who specializes in neuropharmacology and in the treatment of schizophrenia. Messamore reports that, following the recent rise in marijuana use in the U.S. (it has almost doubled in the past two decades, not necessarily as the result of legal reforms), he has begun to see a new kind of patient: older, and not from the marginalized communities that his patients usually come from. These are otherwise stable middle-class professionals. Berenson writes, “A surprising number of them seemed to have used only cannabis and no other drugs before their breaks. The disease they’d developed looked like schizophrenia, but it had developed later—and their prognosis seemed to be worse. Their delusions and paranoia hardly responded to antipsychotics.”
Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell continues to be ardently anti-marijuana, despite the success of these programs and the fact that 62% of Americans say recreational marijuana should be legal. Nevertheless, McConnell and Senate Republicans read the political tea leaves and will now recognize the important differences between marijuana and hemp. In doing so, they’re creating an exciting time for entrepreneurs, CBD advocates, and farmers across the country.
Only a handful of countries have legalized recreational marijuana. Uruguay was one of the first, in 2013. The Netherlands is perhaps the country most known for legal marijuana, yet the drug is illegal there. Spain has given its citizens the rights to grow and consume cannabis privately. Peru also allows citizens to possess marijuana as long as it is for personal, private use. As in Costa Rica, where people can have a “small amount,” without legal trouble.
A clinical endocannabinoid deficiency has been postulated to be operative in certain treatment-resistant conditions (Russo 2004), and has received recent support in findings that anandamide levels are reduced over controls in migraineurs (Sarchielli et al 2006), that a subset of fibromyalgia patients reported significant decreased pain after THC treatment (Schley et al 2006), and the active role of the ECS in intestinal pain and motility in irritable bowel syndrome (Massa and Monory 2006) wherein anecdotal efficacy of cannabinoid treatments have also been claimed.
“Geotextiles” or “agricultural textiles” include (1) ground-retaining, biodegradable matting designed to prevent soil erosion, especially to stabilize new plantings while they develop root systems along steep highway banks to prevent soil slippage (Fig. 32); and (2) ground-covers designed to reduce weeds in planting beds (in the manner of plastic mulch). At present the main materials used are polymeric (polythene, spun-blown polypropylene) and some glass fiber and natural fibers. Both woven and non-woven fibers can be applied to geotextiles; woven and knitted materials are stronger and the open structure may be advantageous (e.g. in allowing plants to grow through), but non-wovens are cheaper and better at suppressing weeds. Flax and hemp fibers exposed to water and soil have been claimed to disintegrate rapidly over the course of a few months, which would make them unacceptable for products that need to have long-term stability when exposed to water and oil. Coco (coir) fiber has been said to be much more suitable, due to higher lignin content (40%–50%, compared to 2%–5% in bast fibers); these are much cheaper than flax and hemp fibers (Karus et al. 2000). However, this analysis does not do justice to the developing hemp geotextile market. Production of hemp erosion control mats is continuing in both Europe and Canada. Given the reputation for rot resistance of hemp canvas and rope, it seems probable that ground matting is a legitimate use. Moreover, the ability to last outdoors for many years is frequently undesirable in geotextiles. For example, the widespread current use of plastic netting to reinforce grass sod is quite objectionable, the plastic persisting for many years and interfering with lawn care. Related to geotextile applications is the possibility of using hemp fiber as a planting substrate (biodegradable pots and blocks for plants), and as biodegradable twine to replace plastic ties used to attach plants to supporting poles. Still another consideration is the “green ideal” of producing locally for local needs; by this credo, hemp is preferable in temperate regions to the use of tropical fibers, which need to be imported.
This is a huge, HUGE step for N.C. First of all farmers can FINALLY make money off land that has grown tobacco for generations. FINALLY doubter I finding out there are many uses for the plant. Perhaps one of the biggest things is the impact on the environment. Most products, if not all, are biodegradable. Also, a huge factor is that in the field of medicine. Will this lead to medical and/or recreational marijuana? Time will tell. As for me, I quit smoking it 20 years ago. I do, however, believe any and all forms of cannabis should and will be made legal. Legal, if for no other reason, so we can stop making people who smoke it into criminals, filling up our jails and prisons. This will free up police, etc.. to finding real criminals. Last, but defiantly not least, IMHO, there is the N.C. aspect. That being I thought we would never, EVER see this time in N.C. Even if it is just industrial hemp for now, it’s a start. Who knows, in the not too distant future, legislatures and law enforcement will become open minded enough to legalize all forms of cannabis, HOPEFULLY. With the youth of these times moving into the right fields, and of course us boomers weighing in, it won’t be too long. AMEN
Hi, I am new to trying CBD oil for chronic pain. I really do not know where to begin . For 14 yrs now I have been living with chronic back pain. I have had surgery, numerous shots, etc. I have been on pain ( opiods) for 14 yrs. I am looking to find something not only for my pain, depression, not sleeping ,anxiety, etc. I know that most my problems come from my chronic pain and being on pain meds for so long. Can anyone please recommend a CBD oil product and strength for me. I have been reading all the reviews and I just need someone to help. I have talked to my Doctor about it and he feels that I should try, but didn’t recommend what.
Based on world production of fibers in 1999, about 54.5% was synthetic (of which 60.3% was polyester), 42.9% was plant fiber (of which 78.5% was cotton), and 2.6% was wool (Karus 2000). In addition to cotton, flax is the only other significant plant fiber crop grown in temperate regions of the world (kenaf has received some enthusiastic backing in the southern US in recent years, but is most cheaply produced in India, Bangladesh, and China). Flax held 2.7% of the world plant fiber market in 1999, while hemp had only 0.3% (Karus 2000). Hemp fiber can potentially replace other biological fibers in many applications, but also, as noted below, can sometimes compete with minerals such as glass fiber and steel. As forests diminish, cultivation of annual plants as fiber sources is likely to increase. While crop residues like cereal straw will probably supply much of the need, specialty fiber plants such as hemp also have potential. The four conditions that will need to be met are (after Bolton 1995): (1) the material should be produced at a large enough scale; (2) the price should be low enough; (3) the fiber characteristics should be adequate for the end use; and (4) proven technology should be available for the processing of the new raw material. Of these criteria only point 3 is adequately met at this time for hemp in North America, but this is to be expected in a crop that has only begun to be cultivated after an absence of many years.
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The regular followers of this blog would know that I suffer from back pain and sleep disorders. So, before I test out CBD products, I give myself a break from CBD to see how the product affects me fully. Fab CBD sells, 4 versions of the CBD Oil with 150mg, 300mg, 600mg and 1200mg. For people who like flavors with their oils, there are different flavors available too.
After fighting the effects of thyroid cancerfor 12 years I wanted to die. Every day. Now, please understand that these were thoughts with no actions, I was just miserable in pain.After 1 week on the CBD oil, (5 drops under the toungue 2x per day) I am a different woman. I now have hope. Some of my emotional pain is presenting as physical pain, but IT'S LEAVING MY BODY.

CBD has been proven to provide a number of positive effects for users, but has not received the acclaim that it deserves. Because of the large number of people who use the drug recreationally, the use of it for medicinal purposes has been a long, difficult road. Many equate the idea that this would be used for those who simply are looking for a legal means to smoke marijuana, but this is not how CBD is generally administered.
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CBD Pain Cream is here to help you live a higher quality life. If you suffer from pain, hypertension, or other conditions that leave you struggling to get through your day, this cream is here to help.  † Because, it uses the power of Cannabidiol to erase pain, discomfort, and other effects from conditions from the outside in. If you especially have pain in certain areas of your body, say your back from an injury or your hands from arthritis, CBD Pain Cream can seriously help you. †
Berenson begins his book with an account of a conversation he had with his wife, a psychiatrist who specializes in treating mentally ill criminals. They were discussing one of the many grim cases that cross her desk—“the usual horror story, somebody who’d cut up his grandmother or set fire to his apartment.” Then his wife said something like “Of course, he was high, been smoking pot his whole life.”
^ Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Hazekawa M, Sano K, Irie K, Orito K, Egawa T, Kitamura Y, Uchida N, Nishimura R, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M (January 2008). "Cannabidiol potentiates pharmacological effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol via CB(1) receptor-dependent mechanism". Brain Research. 1188: 157–64. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2007.09.090. PMID 18021759.
My dad has severe advanced stage Dementia. Will CBD oil help him at this point? He is now refusing to eat any solid food, but will accept most drinks.In addition, he has lost a great deal of weight even though they're giving him Mega Shakes containing a full meals worth of proteins, etc. He gets at least 4 of these a day..some which he refuses. Is his Dementia too far gone for CBD oils to help him?
This article reviews recent research on cannabinoid analgesia via the endocannabinoid system and non-receptor mechanisms, as well as randomized clinical trials employing cannabinoids in pain treatment. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol®) and nabilone (Cesamet®) are currently approved in the United States and other countries, but not for pain indications. Other synthetic cannabinoids, such as ajulemic acid, are in development. Crude herbal cannabis remains illegal in most jurisdictions but is also under investigation. Sativex®, a cannabis derived oromucosal spray containing equal proportions of THC (partial CB1 receptor agonist ) and cannabidiol (CBD, a non-euphoriant, anti-inflammatory analgesic with CB1 receptor antagonist and endocannabinoid modulating effects) was approved in Canada in 2005 for treatment of central neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, and in 2007 for intractable cancer pain. Numerous randomized clinical trials have demonstrated safety and efficacy for Sativex in central and peripheral neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer pain. An Investigational New Drug application to conduct advanced clinical trials for cancer pain was approved by the US FDA in January 2006. Cannabinoid analgesics have generally been well tolerated in clinical trials with acceptable adverse event profiles. Their adjunctive addition to the pharmacological armamentarium for treatment of pain shows great promise.
"In 1943, U.S. hemp production reached more than 150 million pounds (140.7 million pounds hemp fiber; 10.7 million pound hemp seed) on 146,200 harvested acres. This compared to prewar production levels of about 1 million pounds. After reaching a peak in 1943, production started to decline. By 1948, production had dropped back to 3 million pounds on 2,800 harvested acres, with no recorded production after the late 1950s.38"
And without high-quality trials, experts don’t know how much is best for a given purpose. The staff at Roth’s dispensary told her, “Try some once or twice a day and see what happens.” (Half a dropper’s worth was a good amount for her.) One thing scientists feel confident about is that CBD is not dangerous. It won’t damage vital organs even at doses as high as 5,000 mg a day, Marcu says, and nobody has died from simply overdosing on a cannabis product.
• Speaking of which: Has it been third-party tested? Nearly every expert Health spoke to agreed that your CBD products should be tested by a third party to confirm the label's accuracy. This is a real concern in the industry—take the 2017 Journal of the American Medical Association study, for example, which tested 84 CBD products and found that 26% contained lower doses than stated on the bottle. Look for a quality assurance stamp or certificate of analysis from a third party (aka not the actual brand) or check the retailer's website if you don't see it on the product's label.
^ Acj, Zondo (2017-08-02). "Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development and Others v Prince (Clarke, Stobbs and Thorpe Intervening) (Doctors of Life International Inc as Amicus Curiae); National Director of Public Prosecutions and Others v Rubin; National Director of Public Prosecutions and Others v Acton and Others". The Constitutional Court of South Africa.
A clinical endocannabinoid deficiency has been postulated to be operative in certain treatment-resistant conditions (Russo 2004), and has received recent support in findings that anandamide levels are reduced over controls in migraineurs (Sarchielli et al 2006), that a subset of fibromyalgia patients reported significant decreased pain after THC treatment (Schley et al 2006), and the active role of the ECS in intestinal pain and motility in irritable bowel syndrome (Massa and Monory 2006) wherein anecdotal efficacy of cannabinoid treatments have also been claimed.
Probably indigenous to temperate Asia, C. sativa is the most widely cited example of a “camp follower.” It was pre-adapted to thrive in the manured soils around man’s early settlements, which quickly led to its domestication (Schultes 1970). Hemp was harvested by the Chinese 8500 years ago (Schultes and Hofmann 1980). For most of its history, C. sativa was most valued as a fiber source, considerably less so as an intoxicant, and only to a limited extent as an oilseed crop. Hemp is one of the oldest sources of textile fiber, with extant remains of hempen cloth trailing back 6 millennia. Hemp grown for fiber was introduced to western Asia and Egypt, and subsequently to Europe somewhere between 1000 and 2000 BCE. Cultivation in Europe became widespread after 500 ce. The crop was first brought to South America in 1545, in Chile, and to North America in Port Royal, Acadia in 1606. The hemp industry flourished in Kentucky, Missouri, and Illinois between 1840 and 1860 because of the strong demand for sailcloth and cordage (Ehrensing 1998). From the end of the Civil War until 1912, virtually all hemp in the US was produced in Kentucky. During World War I, some hemp cultivation occurred in several states, including Kentucky, Wisconsin, California, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Kansas, and Iowa (Ehrensing 1998). The second world war led to a brief revival of hemp cultivation in the Midwest, as well as in Canada, because the war cut off supplies of fiber (substantial renewed cultivation also occurred in Germany for the same reason). Until the beginning of the 19th century, hemp was the leading cordage fiber. Until the middle of the 19th century, hemp rivaled flax as the chief textile fiber of vegetable origin, and indeed was described as “the king of fiber-bearing plants,—the standard by which all other fibers are measured” (Boyce 1900). Nevertheless, the Marihuana Tax Act applied in 1938 essentially ended hemp production in the United States, although a small hemp fiber industry continued in Wisconsin until 1958. Similarly in 1938 the cultivation of Cannabis became illegal in Canada under the Opium and Narcotics Act.
Although marijuana smoke contains a number of carcinogens findings from a limited number of well-designed studies do not suggest an increased risk for the development of either lung or upper airway cancer from light or moderate use. However, the evidence is mixed when it comes to the carcinogenic risks of heavy, long-term marijuana users, according to this study.

Because C. sativa has been a neglected crop for so long in North America, there are only negligible genetic resources available on this continent. Most germplasm stocks of hemp are in Europe, and the largest and most important collection is the Vavilov Institute gene bank in Leningrad. Figure 11 shows THC concentrations in the Vavilov collection, as well as in our own collection, largely of European germplasm. A disturbingly high percentage of the collections have THC levels higher than 0.3%, making it difficult to incorporate these into breeding programs.
Researchers in New Zealand have studied whether cannabis can be used to treat severe motor and vocal tics in those suffering from Tourette syndrome. The study concluded that subjects who took a controlled THC-CBD medicated spray showed marked improvement in the frequency and severity of motor and vocal tics post-treatment. Although the study is only a small clinical trial, it is one of the first to specifically analyze the effects of cannabis on Tourette syndrome.
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