“THC can be present in products advertised as CBD products, which are not regulated by the FDA. The presence of THC in urine would trigger a positive result on a drug test. Testing will not determine if THC is from CBD or marijuana use," March wrote to WECT about the NHRMC note. “We have advised employees that using CBD products could put them at risk for a positive drug test result.”


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Can CBD oil help anxiety? Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical occurring in cannabis plants. It is possible to add CBD oil to food, and an increasing amount of evidence suggests that it may improve mental health, particularly anxiety. It does not seem to have adverse side effects, but CBD oil is illegal in some states. Learn more about CBD oil here. Read now
I always tell beginners for CBD use to use full-spectrum. The full-spectrum oils contain a lot of terpenes and other good stuff along with CBD and help much more when you suffer from anxiety attacks. CBDistillery also has a wide range of potencies to choose from. Unlike, FabCBD, which offers only limited capacities, CBDistillery’s oils go up to 5000mg per bottle and it is indeed one of the best CBD oils for pain in the market
First, you should not take anything without consulting your physician. While CBD oil is largely safe, a small number of people experience side effects and it could interact with medications you may already be taking like certain antidepressants and antibiotics. Do not be shy about discussing this option, the more open and honest you can be with your doctor, the more they can help you figure out the best path forward if you are considering using CBD oil for pain.
Cannabis, also referred to as marijuana, has been an integral part of human civilizations for millennia. Both as a medicine and as a recreational substance, cannabis is the most popular illicit drug in the world. Today, the legal landscape that has prohibited marijuana for much of the twentieth century is giving way to decriminalization and full legalization. Legal, commercial cannabis businesses are already making an enormous economic impact.
Whether the drug and non-drug, cultivated and wild types of Cannabis constitute a single, highly variable species, or the genus is polytypic with more than one species, has been a subject of debate for well over two centuries. This is a contentious issue because there is no universally accepted definition of a species.[54] One widely applied criterion for species recognition is that species are "groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups."[55] Populations that are physiologically capable of interbreeding, but morphologically or genetically divergent and isolated by geography or ecology, are sometimes considered to be separate species.[55] Physiological barriers to reproduction are not known to occur within Cannabis, and plants from widely divergent sources are interfertile.[43] However, physical barriers to gene exchange (such as the Himalayan mountain range) might have enabled Cannabis gene pools to diverge before the onset of human intervention, resulting in speciation.[56] It remains controversial whether sufficient morphological and genetic divergence occurs within the genus as a result of geographical or ecological isolation to justify recognition of more than one species.[57][58][59]
Some studies state that while there is no proof for the gateway hypothesis,[264] young cannabis users should still be considered as a risk group for intervention programs.[265] Other findings indicate that hard drug users are likely to be poly-drug users, and that interventions must address the use of multiple drugs instead of a single hard drug.[266] Almost two-thirds of the poly drug users in the "2009/10 Scottish Crime and Justice Survey" used cannabis.[267]
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not consider CBD or products that contain CBD to be dietary supplements. This is because CBD has been studied and approved for use as a new drug to treat epilepsy, which means it is outside the definition of a dietary supplement.5 There may be products available that are marked as dietary supplements, however the amount of cannabidiol they claim to contain may not be accurate.
Hemp Bombs CBD Pain Freeze is the perfect soothing solution for your pain, cramp, joint and muscle problems. A full dose of CBD is combined with a cold therapy rub to provide the user with long lasting relief. CBD is a well-known pain reliever and anti-inflammatory that is kind to a user's skin. As well as 99% pure CBD, Hemp Bombs Pain Rub is formulated with other natural ingredients like Aloe Vera to enhance the healing potential of the product. At each stage of product development, Hemp Bombs ensures the highest quality CBD from top quality ingredients to conscientious manufacturing practices.
States have passed laws creating or allowing for the establishment of industrial hemp research or pilot programs. State agencies and institutions of higher education administer these programs in order to study the cultivation, processing, and economics of industrial hemp. Pilot programs may be limited to a certain period of time and may require periodic reporting from participants and state agencies. Some states establish specific regulatory agencies or committees, rules, and goals to oversee the research programs. States may also require coordination between specific colleges or universities and the programs, in other states coordination is optional. From 2015 to 2016, seven states enacted legislation to create hemp research or pilot programs, including Pennsylvania (H.B. 976) and Hawaii (S.B. 2659).
While marijuana cultivation requires ample spacing to reduce the risk of mold or bacteria, hemp can be planted more densely. Most marijuana crops are planted at one (1) plant per four (4) square feet. Hemp plants that are grown for hemp oil are planted at roughly 40 to 60 plants per four (4) square feet. Hemp plants grown for fiber are even more densely planted at a rate of about 100 to 120 plants per four (4) square feet.
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In Canada, the methodology used for analyses and sample collection for THC analysis of hemp plantings is standardized (at the Health Canada/Therapeutics Program/Hemp web site at www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb-dgps/therapeut/htmleng/hemp.html, see “Industrial Hemp Technical Manual” for procedures on sampling plant materials and chemical procedures for determining THC levels). The regulations require that one of the dozen independent laboratories licensed for the purpose conduct the analyses and report the results to Health Canada. Sample collection is also normally carried out by an independent authorized firm. The Canadian system of monitoring THC content has rigidly limited hemp cultivation to cultivars that consistently develop THC levels below 0.3%.
Can CBD oil help anxiety? Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical occurring in cannabis plants. It is possible to add CBD oil to food, and an increasing amount of evidence suggests that it may improve mental health, particularly anxiety. It does not seem to have adverse side effects, but CBD oil is illegal in some states. Learn more about CBD oil here. Read now
Access to viable seed may present a challenge for research programs and commercial growers. To implement commercial and research hemp programs, farmers need access to seeds that are guaranteed to produce plants that fall under the legal definition of hemp. These seeds can be difficult to obtain, however, because hemp is still regulated under the federal Controlled Substances Act. In response to this problem, Colorado’s governor sent a letter to the U.S. secretary of agriculture in 2014 requesting the federal government address hemp seed regulations.
Not until the end of the 20th century was the specific mechanism of action of THC at the neuronal level studied.[citation needed] Researchers have subsequently confirmed that THC exerts its most prominent effects via its actions on two types of cannabinoid receptors, the CB1 receptor and the CB2 receptor, both of which are G protein-coupled receptors.[142] The CB1 receptor is found primarily in the brain as well as in some peripheral tissues, and the CB2 receptor is found primarily in peripheral tissues, but is also expressed in neuroglial cells.[143] THC appears to alter mood and cognition through its agonist actions on the CB1 receptors, which inhibit a secondary messenger system (adenylate cyclase) in a dose-dependent manner. These actions can be blocked by the selective CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716), which has been shown in clinical trials to be an effective treatment for smoking cessation, weight loss, and as a means of controlling or reducing metabolic syndrome risk factors.[144] However, due to the dysphoric effect of CB1 receptor antagonists, this drug is often discontinued due to these side effects.[145]
I always tell beginners for CBD use to use full-spectrum. The full-spectrum oils contain a lot of terpenes and other good stuff along with CBD and help much more when you suffer from anxiety attacks. CBDistillery also has a wide range of potencies to choose from. Unlike, FabCBD, which offers only limited capacities, CBDistillery’s oils go up to 5000mg per bottle and it is indeed one of the best CBD oils for pain in the market
For many, the medical and therapeutic potential of cannabis is what makes legalizing the marijuana plant such an important political and social task. Federal prohibition has established barriers to comprehensive cannabis research in the United States. However, researchers in other countries continue to make significant contributions to our knowledge of the cannabis plant and how it affects the human body.
The regular followers of this blog would know that I suffer from back pain and sleep disorders. So, before I test out CBD products, I give myself a break from CBD to see how the product affects me fully. Fab CBD sells, 4 versions of the CBD Oil with 150mg, 300mg, 600mg and 1200mg. For people who like flavors with their oils, there are different flavors available too.
"The statute thus retains control over all varieties of the cannabis plant by virtue of including them under the term 'marijuana' and does not distinguish between low- and high-THC varieties. The language exempts from control the parts of mature plants—stalks, fiber, oil, cake, etc. — intended for industrial uses. Some have argued that the CSA definition exempts industrial hemp under its term exclusions for stalks, fiber, oil and cake, and seeds.44 DEA refutes this interpretation.45

The ECS is responsible for setting the baseline activity levels of our immune system and nervous system, which then work to maintain our health. When the ECS falls out of whack, the systems that are regulated by it can begin to malfunction. CBD promotes the normal health and function of the endocannabinoid system, so it’s possible that CBD can help to alleviate the symptoms of conditions that are caused by dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system.
Fiberboard. In North America the use of nonwood fibers in sheet fiberboard (“pressboard” or “composite board”) products is relatively undeveloped. Flax, jute, kenaf, hemp, and wheat straw can be used to make composite board. Wheat straw is the dominant nonwood fiber in such applications. Although it might seem that hemp bast fibers are desirable in composite wood products because of their length and strength, in fact the short fibers of the hurds have been found to produce a superior product (K. Domier, pers. commun.). Experimental production of hemp fiberboard has produced extremely strong material (Fig. 22). The economic viability of such remains to be tested. Molded fiberboard products are commercially viable in Europe (Fig. 23), but their potential in North America remains to be determined.
A 2012 review found that the THC content in marijuana had increased worldwide from 1970 to 2009.[160] It is unclear, however, whether the increase in THC content has caused people to consume more THC or if users adjust based on the potency of the cannabis. It is likely that the higher THC content allows people to ingest less tar. At the same time, CBD levels in seized samples have lowered, in part because of the desire to produce higher THC levels and because more illegal growers cultivate indoors using artificial lights. This helps avoid detection but reduces the CBD production of the plant.[161]
“Geotextiles” or “agricultural textiles” include (1) ground-retaining, biodegradable matting designed to prevent soil erosion, especially to stabilize new plantings while they develop root systems along steep highway banks to prevent soil slippage (Fig. 32); and (2) ground-covers designed to reduce weeds in planting beds (in the manner of plastic mulch). At present the main materials used are polymeric (polythene, spun-blown polypropylene) and some glass fiber and natural fibers. Both woven and non-woven fibers can be applied to geotextiles; woven and knitted materials are stronger and the open structure may be advantageous (e.g. in allowing plants to grow through), but non-wovens are cheaper and better at suppressing weeds. Flax and hemp fibers exposed to water and soil have been claimed to disintegrate rapidly over the course of a few months, which would make them unacceptable for products that need to have long-term stability when exposed to water and oil. Coco (coir) fiber has been said to be much more suitable, due to higher lignin content (40%–50%, compared to 2%–5% in bast fibers); these are much cheaper than flax and hemp fibers (Karus et al. 2000). However, this analysis does not do justice to the developing hemp geotextile market. Production of hemp erosion control mats is continuing in both Europe and Canada. Given the reputation for rot resistance of hemp canvas and rope, it seems probable that ground matting is a legitimate use. Moreover, the ability to last outdoors for many years is frequently undesirable in geotextiles. For example, the widespread current use of plastic netting to reinforce grass sod is quite objectionable, the plastic persisting for many years and interfering with lawn care. Related to geotextile applications is the possibility of using hemp fiber as a planting substrate (biodegradable pots and blocks for plants), and as biodegradable twine to replace plastic ties used to attach plants to supporting poles. Still another consideration is the “green ideal” of producing locally for local needs; by this credo, hemp is preferable in temperate regions to the use of tropical fibers, which need to be imported.
A chief argument that has been advanced in favor of developing hemp as a paper and pulp source has been that as a non-wood or tree-free fiber source, it can reduce harvesting of primary forests and the threat to associated biodiversity. It has been claimed that hemp produces three to four times as much useable fiber per hectare per annum as forests. However, Wong (1998) notes evidence that in the southern US hemp would produce only twice as much pulp as does a pine plantation (but see discussion below on suitability of hemp as a potential lumber substitute in areas lacking trees).
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Cannabis consumers have long prized potency (a high THC content) as one of the main factors that makes a particular strain more desirable. Though traditional demand for THC has caused an oversaturation of high-potency products, many consumers are starting to prefer less intense products that are lower in THC and higher in the non-intoxicating compound called cannabidiol (CBD).
But even though it's infiltrating pretty much every corner of the wellness world (hi, vegan CBD brownies!) many people still find CBD a little confusing—especially when it comes to figuring out the right way to use it and how to make sure the stuff you're buying is, you know, actually legit. Below, we asked experts to answer the most pressing questions about CBD.
Cannabinoids are a class of compounds that interact with receptors throughout your body. CBD is just one of dozens of cannabinoids found in cannabis, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the one responsible for marijuana’s famous high. Medical cannabis is technically any cannabis product used for medicinal purposes, and these can contain THC or CBD or both, said Nick Jikomes, a neuroscientist at Leafly, a website that provides information about legal cannabis. “A common mistake people make is to think that CBD is ‘the medical cannabinoid’ and THC is ‘the recreational cannabinoid.’” That’s inaccurate, he said, because THC is a potent anti-inflammatory and can be helpful for pain.
Henry Ford recognized the utility of hemp in early times. In advance of today’s automobile manufacturers, he constructed a car with certain components made of resin stiffened with hemp fiber (Fig. 19). Rather ironically in view of today’s parallel situation, Henry Ford’s hemp innovations in the 1920s occurred at a time of crisis for American farms, later to intensify with the depression. The need to produce new industrial markets for farm products led to a broad movement for scientific research in agriculture that came to be labeled “Farm Chemurgy,” that today is embodied in chemical applications of crop constituents.
Personal health also depends partially on the social structure of a person's life. The maintenance of strong social relationships, volunteering, and other social activities have been linked to positive mental health and also increased longevity. One American study among seniors over age 70, found that frequent volunteering was associated with reduced risk of dying compared with older persons who did not volunteer, regardless of physical health status.[58] Another study from Singapore reported that volunteering retirees had significantly better cognitive performance scores, fewer depressive symptoms, and better mental well-being and life satisfaction than non-volunteering retirees.[59]

The self-medication hypothesis was not supported in either the van Os or Henquet studies. Both studies found that early psychotic symptoms did not predict an increased risk of using cannabis (as is required by the self-medication hypothesis). The direction of the relationships was from early cannabis use to psychosis. Their negative results have recently been supported by Verdoux et al. (2002), who examined the temporal relationship between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms using an experience sampling method. They asked 79 college students to report on their drug use and experience of psychotic symptoms at randomly selected time points, several times each day over 7 consecutive days. The sample included high cannabis users (n = 41) and an over-representation of students identified as vulnerable to psychosis (n = 16). Verdoux and colleagues found that in time periods when cannabis was used, users reported more unusual perceptions, and these relationships were stronger in vulnerable individuals. There was no temporal relationship between reporting unusual experiences and using cannabis use, as would be predicted by the self-medication hypothesis.
Public health also takes various actions to limit the health disparities between different areas of the country and, in some cases, the continent or world. One issue is the access of individuals and communities to health care in terms of financial, geographical or socio-cultural constraints to accessing and using services.[54] Applications of the public health system include the areas of maternal and child health, health services administration, emergency response, and prevention and control of infectious and chronic diseases.
Also high in fiber, hemp seeds are more digestible than any other high-protein food, including meat, cheese, eggs, human milk, or cows’ milk. They’re high in antioxidants, and minerals like iron, zinc and copper as well as calcium, magnesium, potassium, carotene, thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), vitamin B6 and vitamin E. If that’s not enough, there’s also chlorophyll, sulfur, phosphorus, phospholipids, and phytosterols.
Medical marijuana refers to the use of the Cannabis plant as a physician-recommended herbal therapy as well as synthetic[191] THC and cannabinoids. So far, the medical use of cannabis is legal only in a limited number of territories, including Canada,[38] Belgium, Australia, the Netherlands, Spain, and many U.S. states. This usage generally requires a prescription, and distribution is usually done within a framework defined by local laws. There is evidence supporting the use of cannabis or its derivatives in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, neuropathic pain, and multiple sclerosis. Lower levels of evidence support its use for AIDS wasting syndrome, epilepsy, rheumatoid arthritis, and glaucoma.[78]
Now imagine all this possibility actually exists but you can't enjoy any of it because people in power once decided the plant from which it's all derived has a scorned cousin named "marijuana." If you can wrap your mind around this dereliction of logic, only then can you begin to understand the painfully silly policies America's had in place that have kept hemp from coating our farmland with hues of pale yellow and light green.
In states with medical cannabis laws, consumers should try to purchase cannabis from licensed suppliers who share their test results, which hopefully validate their products’ robust cannabinoid and terpenoid profiles. If you’re looking to purchase hemp through an online outlet, research your purchase beforehand to ensure that you aren’t being duped.
In Western Europe, the cultivation of hemp was not legally banned by the 1930s, but the commercial cultivation stopped by then, due to decreased demand compared to increasingly popular artificial fibers.[148] Speculation about the potential for commercial cultivation of hemp in large quantities has been criticized due to successful competition from other fibers for many products. The world production of hemp fiber fell from over 300,000 metric tons 1961 to about 75,000 metric tons in the early 1990s and has after that been stable at that level.[149]
There are lots of reasons to invest in hardy Doc Marten boots, but the process of actually breaking them in? Extremely painful. Last December, I found myself hobbling back to my apartment with new-Doc battle wounds — a cut on my ankle and swollen, blistering feet. On a lark, I used the supposedly miraculous CBD lotion from Lord Jones. I can’t believe I’m saying this, but it worked.
The most widespread claim for environmental friendliness of hemp is that it has the potential to save trees that otherwise would be harvested for production of lumber and pulp. Earlier, the limitations of hemp as a pulp substitute were examined. With respect to wood products, several factors appear to favor increased use of wood substitutes, especially agricultural fibers such as hemp. Deforestation, particularly the destruction of old growth forests, and the world’s decreasing supply of wild timber resources are today major ecological concerns. Agroforestry using tree species is one useful response, but nevertheless sacrifices wild lands and biodiversity, and is less preferable than sustainable wildland forestry. The use of agricultural residues (e.g. straw bales in house construction) is an especially environmentally friendly solution to sparing trees, but material limitations restrict use. Another chief advantage of several annual fiber crops over forestry crops is relative productivity, annual fiber crops sometimes producing of the order of four times as much per unit of land. Still another important advantage is the precise control over production quantities and schedule that is possible with annual crops. In many parts of the world, tree crops are simply not a viable alternative. “By the turn of the century 3 billion people may live in areas where wood is cut faster than it grows or where fuelwood is extremely scarce” (World Commission on Environment and Development 1987). “Since mid-century, lumber use has tripled, paper use has increased six-fold, and firewood use has soared as Third World populations have multiplied” (Brown et al. 1998). Insofar as hemp reduces the need to harvest trees for building materials or other products, its use as a wood substitute will tend to contribute to preserving biodiversity. Hemp may also enhance forestry management by responding to short-term fiber demand while trees reach their ideal maturation. In developing countries where fuelwood is becoming increasingly scarce and food security is a concern, the introduction of a dual-purpose crop such as hemp to meet food, shelter, and fuel needs may contribute significantly to preserving biodiversity.
The maintenance and promotion of health is achieved through different combination of physical, mental, and social well-being, together sometimes referred to as the "health triangle."[24][25] The WHO's 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion further stated that health is not just a state, but also "a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities."[26]

At Hemp Bombs, we’re proud to source our CBD from organic, superior-grade Industrial Hemp that is grown with sustainable methods. Hemp Bombs products contain pure CBD, which is not linked with overdose or addiction. Our CBD products contain zero traces of THC, so they are considered “CBD isolate.” Not only is CBD isolate federally legal, but it also gives you the complete confidence you will not fail a drug test from using CBD products. We manufacture all products in-house. In-house manufacturing means that we maintain complete quality control of products in one facility all the way to packaging and shipping. Hemp Bombs provides you with an apparent breakdown of what is in our CBD. Our products contain pure Cannabidiol and are all labeled with the milligram dosage. Hemp Bombs CBD is third-party lab tested to ensure you the most refined product. The search is over; Hemp Bombs Premium CBD Pain Freeze is your next stop for the ultimate pain and inflammation relief.


A clinical endocannabinoid deficiency has been postulated to be operative in certain treatment-resistant conditions (Russo 2004), and has received recent support in findings that anandamide levels are reduced over controls in migraineurs (Sarchielli et al 2006), that a subset of fibromyalgia patients reported significant decreased pain after THC treatment (Schley et al 2006), and the active role of the ECS in intestinal pain and motility in irritable bowel syndrome (Massa and Monory 2006) wherein anecdotal efficacy of cannabinoid treatments have also been claimed.
Marijuana has in fact been grown for medicinal research in North America by both the Canadian (Fig. 40) and American governments, and this will likely continue. The possibility of marijuana becoming a legal commercial crop in North America is, to say the least, unlikely in the foreseeable future. Nevertheless the private sector is currently producing medicinal marijuana in Europe and Canada, so the following orientation to marijuana as a potential authorized crop is not merely academic.
In a study with HIV-positive adult men, blood concentrations of ghrelin and other appetitive hormones (leptin, PYY, and insulin) were tested after having received smoked medicinal cannabis or matched placebo for HIV-associated neuropathic pain. Cannabis administration, as compared to placebo, significantly increased ghrelin concentrations in this study. In addition, leptin and PYY levels were, respectively, increased and decreased, but no impact on insulin levels was found (Riggs et al., 2012).
"Similar language was contained in the enacted FY2016 Consolidated Appropriations Act, wherein Congress blocked DEA and other federal law enforcement authorities from interfering with state agencies, hemp growers, and agricultural research.47 In addition, USDA was also blocked from prohibiting the transportation, processing, sale, or use of industrial hemp that is grown or cultivated in accordance with the 2014 farm bill provision.48 Legislation debating the FY2017 budget also contained similar restrictions.49

Does anybody know about cbd vs thc for chronic exhaustion? There are times that I can barely get out of bed and can’t do work due to it, and it has gotten my mood swings to go over the roof! I don’t have much interest in doing just thc because it makes me feel more lethargic, but cbd has seem to be able to help me! I need to know if someone has used it for this problem, and is results

Mainly what they look for in drug test is THC. Hemp contains only very minuscule amounts of THC. You cannot get high off of hemp. It is impossible. You would have to smoke or eat a boat load of hemp to even remotely get a buzz. A person could not ingest that much hemp, and a person would die of smoke inhalation before smoking enough to achieve a buzz. So hemp does not contain enough THC to show up on a drug screening. I hope this information helps you.
While very few clinical trials have explored the pain-relieving effects of CBD oil, a report published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in 2018 examined the use of a variety of cannabis-based medicines and found they might be of some benefit in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. A type of pain triggered by damage to the somatosensory system (i.e., the system responsible for processing sensory stimuli), neuropathic pain often occurs in people with conditions like diabetes and multiple sclerosis.
Generalized pain, for instance, has dozens upon dozens of high profile research and clinical studies that have been carried out in universities and laboratories around the globe. One of the most well-publicized of these studies took place back in 2008, in which results determined that “cannabinoid analgesics (pain relievers) have generally been well tolerated in clinical trials … with acceptable adverse event profiles (meaning acceptable effectiveness for practical use).
"In addition, as part of the FY2017 appropriations debate, the Senate committee report urged USDA 'to clarify the Agency’s authority to award Federal funds to research projects deemed compliant with Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014.'51 The latter provision addresses questions by a number of state and private research institutions about the extent to which industrial hemp initiatives might be eligible for U.S. federal grant programs (both USDA and non-USDA program funds). Previously, in November 2015, several Members of Congress sent a letter to USDA requesting clarification of the agency’s research funds for industrial hemp.52"
"Hemp hurd is composed of cellulose-rich, short fibres, and make up approximately 75% of the hemp stalk. They are spongy and absorbent, ideal characteristics in applications such as animal bedding and industrial absorbents. They may also be used to produce low-quality paper. More recently, hemp hurd has been used to produce a concrete-like substance for use in building applications, as well as for insulation and to produce fibreboard."
Medical marijuana refers to the use of the Cannabis plant as a physician-recommended herbal therapy as well as synthetic[191] THC and cannabinoids. So far, the medical use of cannabis is legal only in a limited number of territories, including Canada,[38] Belgium, Australia, the Netherlands, Spain, and many U.S. states. This usage generally requires a prescription, and distribution is usually done within a framework defined by local laws. There is evidence supporting the use of cannabis or its derivatives in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, neuropathic pain, and multiple sclerosis. Lower levels of evidence support its use for AIDS wasting syndrome, epilepsy, rheumatoid arthritis, and glaucoma.[78]
CBD was first discovered in 1940 by Roger Adams, a prominent organic chemist at the University of Illinois. Shortly thereafter, other scientists began testing isolated cannabinoids on lab animals; notably, Walter S. Loewe ran trials on mice and rabbits with the cannabinoids THC, CBD and CBN. He found that CBD produced no observable effects in the animals’ behavior while THC caused, what he called, a “central excitant action” in rabbits. Despite science’s movement forward, scientists were completely unaware of the cannabinoids’ chemical structure, so no one could tell which specific compound resulted in which effect.

A few years ago, the National Academy of Medicine convened a panel of sixteen leading medical experts to analyze the scientific literature on cannabis. The report they prepared, which came out in January of 2017, runs to four hundred and sixty-eight pages. It contains no bombshells or surprises, which perhaps explains why it went largely unnoticed. It simply stated, over and over again, that a drug North Americans have become enthusiastic about remains a mystery.
To my understanding, neither CBD nor THC are effective for “severe” pain; rather, they work better for mild to moderate chronic pain. Often, with severe pain, the dosage of opiates can be decreased with concomitant use of medical cannabis or CBD and that decrease in dose makes their use safer. Concurrent use of THC does increase the analgesic effect of CBD, but it also adds the “high” which some people do not want as a side effect.
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