Via CB1 receptor activation, THC indirectly increases dopamine release and produces psychotropic effects.[146] Cannabidiol (CBD) also acts as an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors.[147] THC also potentiates the effects of the glycine receptors.[148] It is unknown if or how these actions contribute to the effects of cannabis.[149]
To make matters more confusing, nine states (including California, Washington, and Colorado) let residents buy cannabis-based products with or without THC. Nearly two dozen other “medical marijuana states” allow the sale of cannabis, including capsules, tinctures, and other items containing CBD or THC, at licensed dispensaries to people whose doctors have certified that they have an approved condition (the list varies by state but includes chronic pain, PTSD, cancer, autism, Crohn’s disease, and multiple sclerosis). Sixteen more states legalized CBD for certain diseases. But because all these products are illegal according to the federal government, cannabis advocates are cautious. “By and large, the federal government is looking the other way,” says Paul Armentano, deputy director of the Washington, DC–based National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML), but until federal laws are changed, “this administration or a future one could crack down on people who produce, manufacture, or use CBD, and the law would be on its side.”
Prior to the Hemp Farming Act of 2018, 41 states had passed industrial hemp-related legislation. 39 of those states legalized statewide hemp cultivation programs that defined hemp specifically to differentiate it from marijuana, establish licensing requirements, and regulate production. The Hemp Farming Act now requires state departments of agriculture to consult with their governors and chief law enforcement officers on a hemp regulatory program, which will then be submitted to the United States Secretary of Agriculture for approval. According to Section 297B of the bill, state hemp regulatory programs must include a system to maintain information on all land on which hemp is cultivated, procedures for testing THC levels in hemp, and procedures for disposing of products that violate THC content restrictions.
Via CB1 receptor activation, THC indirectly increases dopamine release and produces psychotropic effects.[146] Cannabidiol (CBD) also acts as an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors.[147] THC also potentiates the effects of the glycine receptors.[148] It is unknown if or how these actions contribute to the effects of cannabis.[149]
"Hemp fields, in fact, could be a deterrent to marijuana growers. A strong case can be made that the best way to reduce the THC level of marijuana grown outdoors would be to grow industrial hemp near it. An experiment in Russia found that hemp pollen could travel 12 kilometers. This would mean that a hemp field would create a zone with a 12-kilometer radius within which no marijuana grower would want to establish a crop.
The 2014 US Farm Bill allows states that have passed their own industrial hemp legislation to grow industrial hemp for purposes of research and development. Several states — including Kentucky, Colorado, and Oregon — are already conducting hemp pilot projects. Many other states are currently pursuing similar legislation and programs. After many years of prohibition, American farmers are finally reacquainting themselves with industrial hemp.
Our pick for Best Customer Experience is Populum, an Arizona-based CBD brand that offers complete product transparency and great deals for shoppers. Populum offers a full spectrum CBD oil in 250mg, 500mg, and 1000mg concentrations. The product is made with cold-pressed orange oil for a light citrus taste, as well as grapeseed and coconut oils for added flavors. Populum also offers a cooling topical salve that relaxes aching joints and muscles, as well as a pet oil for dogs and cats. Additionally, the CBD oil, topical salve, and pet oil are packaged in an inexpensive ‘Starter Kit’ designed for first-time users. 

“Hemp” refers primarily to Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae), although the term has been applied to dozens of species representing at least 22 genera, often prominent fiber crops. For examples, Manila hemp (abaca) is Musa textilis Née, sisal hemp is Agave sisalina Perrine, and sunn hemp is Crotolaria juncea L. Especially confusing is the phrase “Indian hemp,” which has been used both for narcotic Asian land races of C. sativa (so-called C. indica Lamarck of India) and Apocynum cannabinum L., which was used by North American Indians as a fiber plant. Cannabis sativa is a multi-purpose plant that has been domesticated for bast (phloem) fiber in the stem, a multi-purpose fixed oil in the “seeds” (achenes), and an intoxicating resin secreted by epidermal glands. The common names hemp and marijuana (much less frequently spelled marihuana) have been applied loosely to all three forms, although historically hemp has been used primarily for the fiber cultigen and its fiber preparations, and marijuana for the drug cultigen and its drug preparations. The current hemp industry is making great efforts to point out that “hemp is not marijuana.” Italicized, Cannabis refers to the biological name of the plant (only one species of this genus is commonly recognized, C. sativa L.). Non-italicized, “cannabis” is a generic abstraction, widely used as a noun and adjective, and commonly (often loosely) used both for cannabis plants and/or any or all of the intoxicant preparations made from them.
The first time I came across CBD was when I was visiting my brother in San Antonio, Texas 2 years back. The one day I had some serious back pain, My brother's neighbour suggested that I should try CBD oil for my pain as it helps his mom with her cancer pain, and directed me to SABotanicals, a local CBD store in San Antonio where I bought a 2000mg CBD oil.In the beginning, I was a sceptic, but it worked so well that I ordered three more bottles to last me for a few months. I must say that also felt relaxed but could do my work with no issues as it didn't make me high.To date, I'm still using CBD oil for my paid and came off pain medications completely.God gave us something great!

A study by Henquet and colleagues (2004) substantially replicated both the Swedish and Dutch studies in a 4-year follow-up of a cohort of 2437 adolescents and young adults between 1995 and 1999 in Munich. They found a dose–response relationship between self-reported cannabis use at baseline and the likelihood of reporting psychotic symptoms. As in the Dutch cohort, young people who reported psychotic symptoms at baseline were much more likely to experience psychotic symptoms at follow-up if they used cannabis than were cannabis-using peers without such a history.
Apart from Endoca CBD oils, you will also find other similar products, such as isolate, tinctures or creams. Some products are designed for pets too. The range offered by Endoca is not impressive when compared to more prestigious manufacturers, but you can still find anything you might need. Using in house green equipment and procedures for the manufacturing process, Endoca can also afford to keep the prices a little lower.

Another concern is about medications with which CBD might interact. This won’t be an issue with most drugs, says Sunil Kumar Aggarwal, M.D., Ph.D., a palliative medicine physician and scientist who studies cannabis and integrates it into his Seattle medical practice. The exceptions are blood thinners, IV antibiotics, and other drugs whose exact dosing is crucial and must be monitored closely, he says. (Of course, if you have a health problem, talk to your doctor before using CBD, and never take it instead of seeing your physician for a serious condition.)
All that's changed with the high trade tariffs Trump's levied on countries who import our products. Analysts and existing evidence suggest the soybean trade conflicts will be in favor of fellow exporters, Brazil and Argentina, rather than the U.S. The tariff could drop China’s imports of soybeans by 69% on average. The estimated effect of China’s 25% tariff on U.S. soybean imports would cut income for a midsize Illinois grain farm by an average of 87% over four years, prompting a loss of more than $500,000 in the farm’s net worth by 2021.
Wikidata: Q79817 Wikispecies: Cannabis APDB: 189080 APNI: 106875 BioLib: 3465 EoL: 72695 EPPO: 1CNIG FloraBase: 22595 FNA: 105522 FoC: 105522 GBIF: 2984538 GRIN: 2034 iNaturalist: 72032 IPNI: 40737-1 IRMNG: 1280947 ITIS: 19108 NBN: NHMSYS0000456774 NCBI: 3482 NZOR: 5344e3b5-4049-474a-ac38-eb23ffc8f216 PLANTS: CANNA POWO: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:30204649-2 Tropicos: 40000735 uBio: 4894539 VASCAN: 945

Hi, I am new to trying CBD oil for chronic pain. I really do not know where to begin . For 14 yrs now I have been living with chronic back pain. I have had surgery, numerous shots, etc. I have been on pain ( opiods) for 14 yrs. I am looking to find something not only for my pain, depression, not sleeping ,anxiety, etc. I know that most my problems come from my chronic pain and being on pain meds for so long. Can anyone please recommend a CBD oil product and strength for me. I have been reading all the reviews and I just need someone to help. I have talked to my Doctor about it and he feels that I should try, but didn’t recommend what.
With so many companies popping up every day, we’ve done the hard work for you. We bring you the best CBD oil guide and the top 25 brands that made our list based on CBD oil quality, effectiveness, customer service and of course price. Please note, this article is updated constantly, so don’t forget come back from time to time to see the most updated information.
This article reviews recent research on cannabinoid analgesia via the endocannabinoid system and non-receptor mechanisms, as well as randomized clinical trials employing cannabinoids in pain treatment. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol®) and nabilone (Cesamet®) are currently approved in the United States and other countries, but not for pain indications. Other synthetic cannabinoids, such as ajulemic acid, are in development. Crude herbal cannabis remains illegal in most jurisdictions but is also under investigation. Sativex®, a cannabis derived oromucosal spray containing equal proportions of THC (partial CB1 receptor agonist ) and cannabidiol (CBD, a non-euphoriant, anti-inflammatory analgesic with CB1 receptor antagonist and endocannabinoid modulating effects) was approved in Canada in 2005 for treatment of central neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, and in 2007 for intractable cancer pain. Numerous randomized clinical trials have demonstrated safety and efficacy for Sativex in central and peripheral neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer pain. An Investigational New Drug application to conduct advanced clinical trials for cancer pain was approved by the US FDA in January 2006. Cannabinoid analgesics have generally been well tolerated in clinical trials with acceptable adverse event profiles. Their adjunctive addition to the pharmacological armamentarium for treatment of pain shows great promise.

One area where CBD is clearly helpful: the treatment of seizures associated with one form of epilepsy. A 2017 New England Journal of Medicine study found ingesting oral CBD dramatically cut down most patients’ seizure frequency—a finding that prompted the FDA to support the approval of one CBD drug for use in the treatment of some epilepsy patients.
Various strains of "medical marijuana" are found to have a significant variation in the ratios of CBD-to-THC, and are known to contain other non-psychotropic cannabinoids.[60] Any psychoactive marijuana, regardless of its CBD content, is derived from the flower (or bud) of the genus Cannabis. Non-psychoactive hemp (also commonly-termed industrial hemp), regardless of its CBD content, is any part of the cannabis plant, whether growing or not, containing a ∆-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of no more than 0.3% on a dry-weight basis.[61] Certain standards are required for legal growing, cultivating, and producing the hemp plant. The Colorado Industrial Hemp Program registers growers of industrial hemp and samples crops to verify that the dry-weight THC concentration does not exceed 0.3%.[61]
I have neuropathic pain. I’ve tried 3 brands now, this last one being less expensive. I “think” it’s helping a little bit…. maybe it’s wishful thinking. I never really knew how much to take. There is so much confusion on dosing, so I just take a dropper full now. Maybe that’s too much, maybe not. Should I take it twice a day, or once? I find it very hard to compare brand to brand. Thank you for your detailed, informative article. If anyone would care to share how much oil they take daily, I would appreciate it. I’m just trying to get a rough idea of what’s normal, an average. thanks.
Ajulemic acid (CT3, IP-751) (Figure 1), another synthetic dimethylheptyl analogue, was employed in a Phase II RCT in 21 subjects with improvement in peripheral neuropathic pain (Karst et al 2003) (Table 1). Part of its analgesic activity may relate to binding to intracellular peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor gamma (Liu et al 2003). Peak plasma concentrations have generally been attained in 1–2 hours, but with delays up to 4–5 hours is some subjects (Karst et al 2003). Debate surrounds the degree of psychoactivity associated with the drug (Dyson et al 2005). Current research is confined to the indication of interstitial cystitis.
CatryNA49; Cannabis, like Opium poppies, and the substances derived from these plants, were also made illegal as a means of preventing white females, from being seduced, and or raped by male members of minority races; seriously ! In the early 70s Nixon administration officials oversaw the expansion of drug laws, as a means of legally repressing the two groups of Americans, that administration deemed to be their biggest foes; those groups being, African Americans, and the antiwar left. We know the drug war, just like the earlier less repressive drug laws, was initiated as a means of legal political, and racial repression because of the fact that a Nixon adm. official is on film, admitting as much. You can Google that film if you like. Now despite the truth about the drug war being admitted on film, for anyone in the world who has internet access can see, the drug war continues to be waged by politicians; the same politicians by the way, that tens of millions of Americans continue to vote for. I should add, that in the last presidential election, the candidate who promised to refuel the drug war, was the candidate who won that election. Of course what else could you expect, being that we live in the land of the free and the home of the brave ?!
Figuring out how much CBD oil to take can feel like trying to navigate through a complicated maze. The sheer volume of CBD brands on the market can create confusion for consumers, and when you take a closer look, it’s not difficult to understand why. Not only do vendors use different source materials (CBD-rich cannabis vs. industrial hemp, different strains, etc.), but they also implement different extraction techniques .
In 2014, President Obama signed the Farm Bill of 2014 into law. This law contained a section that removed hemp from Schedule 1 of the Controlled Substances Act. It also created a legal structure that made cultivation and research of hemp legal in states that wanted to initiate “Pilot Research Programs” into the cultivation and marketing of hemp and hemp-derived products. 

For a fiber crop, hemp is cut in the early flowering stage or while pollen is being shed, well before seeds are set. Tall European cultivars (greater than 2 m) have mostly been grown in Canada to date, and most of these are photoperiodically adapted to mature late in the season (often too late). Small crops have been harvested with sickle-bar mowers and hay swathers, but plugging of equipment is a constant problem. Hemp fibers tend to wrap around combine belts, bearings, indeed any moving part, and have resulted in large costs of combine repairs (estimated at $10.00/ha). Slower operation of conventional combines has been recommended (0.6–2 ha/hour). Large crops may require European specialized equipment, but experience in North America with crops grown mainly for fiber is limited. The Dutch company HempFlax has developed or adapted several kinds of specialized harvesting equipment (Fig. 44, 45).

It is often claimed by growers and breeders of herbal cannabis that advances in breeding and cultivation techniques have increased the potency of cannabis since the late 1960s and early '70s when THC was first discovered and understood. However, potent seedless cannabis such as "Thai sticks" were already available at that time. Sinsemilla (Spanish for "without seed") is the dried, seedless inflorescences of female cannabis plants. Because THC production drops off once pollination occurs, the male plants (which produce little THC themselves) are eliminated before they shed pollen to prevent pollination. Advanced cultivation techniques such as hydroponics, cloning, high-intensity artificial lighting, and the sea of green method are frequently employed as a response (in part) to prohibition enforcement efforts that make outdoor cultivation more risky. It is often cited that the average levels of THC in cannabis sold in the United States rose dramatically between the 1970s and 2000, but such statements are likely skewed because undue weight is given to much more expensive and potent, but less prevalent samples.[253]
Over decades, researchers have found that THC may help treat pain, nausea, loss of appetite and other problems, while CBD was thought to be biologically inactive in humans. But in the past 10 years, scientists have concluded that CBD may be quite useful. Dozens of studies have found evidence that the compound can treat epilepsy as well as a range of other illnesses, including anxiety, schizophrenia, heart disease and cancer.
Whether the chronic pain is in your back, neck, hands, feet, or elsewhere – CBD can help! In order to understand how CBD helps provide pain relief, we turn to a series of medical studies that have been conducted over the past ten years. These studies evaluated CBD’s medical efficacy in treating those who suffer from various types of pain. We will address the results below.
But he wasn’t finished. In February of 1980, Dr. Mechoulam teamed up with South American researchers to publish a study regarding cannabis and epilepsy. This study is seen as one of the earliest double-blind studies of CBD on clinical subjects. The study Dr. Mechoulam and his team conducted included 16 people, many of whom were children, who all suffered from severe epilepsy. The results were startling: Every subject who received CBD experienced improvement in their condition with little to no side effects. This anticonvulsant study has since proven to be an integral milestone in the world of clinical marijuana research, but largely went unnoticed at the time.
But, uh, what is it that CBD is supposed to do? I visited a cannabis dispensary in Boulder to find out what the hype was all about. After passing an ID check, I was introduced to a “budtender” who pointed me to an impressive array of CBD products — tinctures, skin patches, drink powders, candies, salves, massage oil, lotions, “sexy time personal intimacy oil” and even vaginal suppositories to treat menstrual cramps.
The main and only ingredient in CBD Pain Cream is Cannabidiol. This comes from the Marijuana plant, which has over 400 chemicals in it. Now, this won’t get you high, as it contains no THC. And, CBD is completely legal in all 50 states. Truly, CBD is a breakthrough for reducing pain, inflammation from chronic conditions, and even stress. † And, now you can get in in a convenient topical cream to help erase the pain right on the spot. Within a few minutes, you should notice your pain disappearing. And, CBD Pain Cream saves you from having to be dependent on prescriptions. †
The Spaniards brought hemp to the Americas and cultivated it in Chile starting about 1545.[117] Similar attempts were made in Peru, Colombia, and Mexico, but only in Chile did the crop find success.[118] In July 1605, Samuel Champlain reported the use of grass and hemp clothing by the (Wampanoag) people of Cape Cod and the (Nauset) people of Plymouth Bay told him they harvested hemp in their region where it grew wild to a height of 4 to 5 ft. [119] In May 1607, "hempe" was among the crops Gabriel Archer observed being cultivated by the natives at the main Powhatan village, where Richmond, Virginia is now situated;[120] and in 1613, Samuell Argall reported wild hemp "better than that in England" growing along the shores of the upper Potomac. As early as 1619, the first Virginia House of Burgesses passed an Act requiring all planters in Virginia to sow "both English and Indian" hemp on their plantations.[121] The Puritans are first known to have cultivated hemp in New England in 1645.[117]

AC/DC: A Sativa-dominant phenotype of Cannatonic, this cultivar boasts one of the highest ratios of CBD to THC, clocking in at 20:1. AC/DC is claimed to help reduce pain, anxiety, depression and migraines while reducing symptoms in patients with epilepsy, some forms of cancer, and multiple sclerosis. This cultivar’s pinene-rich terpene profile offers potent clear-headed pain relief.
Keep in mind that CBD levels may vary from crop to crop—even from plant to plant. However, below are some strains that have been bred to contain higher CBD levels, so they might be a good place to start. Check the map on their strain page to see if these are sold at a dispensary near you. We also recommend checking with dispensaries about the specifics of their strains’ CBD levels. It’s always a good idea to purchase only lab-tested products that clearly state the CBD/THC levels so you know what kind of experience to expect.

NuLeaf Naturals CBD oil tinctures are all full spectrum; it is 100% organic and never made with herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers. The brand offers a full spectrum pet CBD oil tincture, as well. NuLeaf Naturals offers free shipping to all 50 states; the brand’s products are also sold in more than 1,000 retail locations across the country.
There are also other difficulties in researching the effects of cannabis. Many people who smoke cannabis also smoke tobacco.[277] This causes confounding factors, where questions arise as to whether the tobacco, the cannabis, or both that have caused a cancer. Another difficulty researchers have is in recruiting people who smoke cannabis into studies. Because cannabis is an illegal drug in many countries, people may be reluctant to take part in research, and if they do agree to take part, they may not say how much cannabis they actually smoke.[278]

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not consider CBD or products that contain CBD to be dietary supplements. This is because CBD has been studied and approved for use as a new drug to treat epilepsy, which means it is outside the definition of a dietary supplement.5 There may be products available that are marked as dietary supplements, however the amount of cannabidiol they claim to contain may not be accurate.
The problem is, it’s not easy to know what you’re actually ingesting, or if it’ll actually change how you feel. At best, CBD in America exists in a confusing state of quasi-legality and yet-to-be-realized potential. Experts estimate that the market for it could balloon to $22 billion by 2022, but with cannabis and hemp laws changing rapidly across the country, the chemical is almost entirely unregulated on the consumer market, with no end-product labeling or composition standards to help shoppers understand what they’re buying.
The degree to which a drug is reinforcing is determined partly by the by the rate of its delivery to the brain (Samaha and Robinson 2005). Sativex has effect onset in 15–40 minutes, peaking in a few hours, quite a bit slower than drugs of high abuse potential. It has been claimed that inclusion of CBD diminishes psychoactive effects of THC, and may lower potential drug abuse liability of the preparation (see Russo (2006b)) for discussion). Prior studies from Sativex clinical trials do not support the presence reinforcement or euphoria as problems in administration (Wade et al 2006).
So true. Hearst and Rockefeller did not want Hemp or any form of Cannabis interfering with their lucrative paper, pharmaceutical and oil industries. Hemp is versatile and renewable. It can be used for food, medicine, fuel, paper, clothing, plastic, building materials; just about anything paper and oil is used for. These bastard wealthy people have done a disservice to all people and for the sake of lining their already copiously rich pockets. They and those like them are criminals of the worst order
When privacy isn’t a requirement, outdoor cannabis grows can provide many advantages over indoor operations. Sunlight is the single most important factor for successful outdoor marijuana growing. It’s important to choose a plot with total sunshine throughout the day. Therefore, cannabis growers in the northern hemisphere will want plots with southern exposure, exposing marijuana plants to the sun’s arc across the sky.
The 2018 Farm Bill expands upon provisions in the 2014 version of the annual bill, which created Hemp Pilot Programs. These Hemp Pilot Programs “created a framework for the legal cultivation by states of ‘industrial hemp’ without a permit from the Drug Enforcement Administration.” The 2014 Hemp Pilot Programs were a success for farmers and consumers across the U.S., from Colorado to North Carolina.
President Donald Trump signed the 2018 farm bill on Thursday afternoon, which legalized hemp — a variety of cannabis that does not produce the psychoactive component of marijuana — paving the way to legitimacy for an agricultural sector that has been operating on the fringe of the law. Industrial hemp has made investors and executives swoon because of the potential multibillion-dollar market for cannabidiol, or CBD, a non-psychoactive compound that has started to turn up in beverages, health products and pet snacks, among other products.
Medical marijuana in the U.S. is controlled at the state level. Per federal law, cannabis is illegal as noted in the Controlled Substances Act, but the federal government has stated they will not actively prosecute patients and caregivers complying with state medical marijuana laws. However, use of medical marijuana outside of the state laws for illegal use or trafficking will not be tolerated by state or federal government.
Access to viable seed may present a challenge for research programs and commercial growers. To implement commercial and research hemp programs, farmers need access to seeds that are guaranteed to produce plants that fall under the legal definition of hemp. These seeds can be difficult to obtain, however, because hemp is still regulated under the federal Controlled Substances Act. In response to this problem, Colorado’s governor sent a letter to the U.S. secretary of agriculture in 2014 requesting the federal government address hemp seed regulations.
The seeds are sown with grain drills or other conventional seeding equipment to a depth of 1.27 to 2.54 cm. Greater seeding depths result in increased weed competition. Nitrogen should not be placed with the seed, but phosphate may be tolerated. The soil should have available 89 to 135 kg/ha of nitrogen, 46 kg/ha phosphorus, 67 kg/ha potassium, and 17 kg/ha sulfur. Organic fertilizers such as manure are one of the best methods of weed control.[58]

When it comes to cannabis, the best-case scenario is that we will muddle through, learning more about its true effects as we go along and adapting as needed—the way, say, the once extraordinarily lethal innovation of the automobile has been gradually tamed in the course of its history. For those curious about the worst-case scenario, Alex Berenson has written a short manifesto, “Tell Your Children: The Truth About Marijuana, Mental Illness, and Violence.”
The meaning of health has evolved over time. In keeping with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health focused on the theme of the body's ability to function; health was seen as a state of normal function that could be disrupted from time to time by disease. An example of such a definition of health is: "a state characterized by anatomic, physiologic, and psychological integrity; ability to perform personally valued family, work, and community roles; ability to deal with physical, biological, psychological, and social stress".[7] Then in 1948, in a radical departure from previous definitions, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a definition that aimed higher: linking health to well-being, in terms of "physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity".[8] Although this definition was welcomed by some as being innovative, it was also criticized as being vague, excessively broad and was not construed as measurable. For a long time, it was set aside as an impractical ideal and most discussions of health returned to the practicality of the biomedical model.[9]
"In 1937, Congress passed the first federal law to discourage cannabis production for marijuana while still permitting industrial uses of the crop (the Marihuana Tax Act; 50 Stat. 551). Under this statute, the government actively encouraged farmers to grow hemp for fiber and oil during World War II. After the war, competition from synthetic fibers, the Marihuana Tax Act, and increasing public anti-drug sentiment resulted in fewer and fewer acres of hemp being planted, and none at all after 1958.
Shut-eye overview Although sleep is essential for our health, its biological purpose is not fully understood. Oddly, the seemingly inactive state of sleep is actually a dynamic and critical process that helps us store memories, build immunity, repair tissue, regulate metabolism and blood pressure, control appetite and blood sugar, and process learning, along with a myriad of other physiological... Read more

"The term ‘“marihuana” means all parts of the plant Cannabis sativa L., whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; the resin extracted from any part of such plant; and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds or resin. Such term does not include the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds of such plant, any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such mature stalks (except the resin extracted therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake, or the sterilized seed of such plant which is incapable of germination.140
There are lots of reasons to invest in hardy Doc Marten boots, but the process of actually breaking them in? Extremely painful. Last December, I found myself hobbling back to my apartment with new-Doc battle wounds — a cut on my ankle and swollen, blistering feet. On a lark, I used the supposedly miraculous CBD lotion from Lord Jones. I can’t believe I’m saying this, but it worked.
Israel, another example, has led the way with ground-breaking research into cannabis cultivation. The country recently recognized medical marijuana as an official part of the nation’s branch of agriculture. Israel is already one of the world’s leading exporters of medical-grade cannabis. Recognizing marijuana cultivation as an official branch of the country’s agriculture will open up even more funds to support Israeli cannabis farmers.
The Marijuana business has become like a Cult. They whole heartedly ‘Believe” it cures cancer and a host of other issues. A local University “Researcher” has moved in to provide more pseudo science with a narrow, self selected “Survey.” The results or lack of Scientific rigor don’t matter to these people, it is more profitable to ignore the facts and science. They already believe that Medical Marijuana can replace pain medications for chronic pain.
Only a handful of countries have legalized recreational marijuana. Uruguay was one of the first, in 2013. The Netherlands is perhaps the country most known for legal marijuana, yet the drug is illegal there. Spain has given its citizens the rights to grow and consume cannabis privately. Peru also allows citizens to possess marijuana as long as it is for personal, private use. As in Costa Rica, where people can have a “small amount,” without legal trouble.
Last May, not long before Canada legalized the recreational use of marijuana, Beau Kilmer, a drug-policy expert with the RAND Corporation, testified before the Canadian Parliament. He warned that the fastest-growing segment of the legal market in Washington State was extracts for inhalation, and that the mean THC concentration for those products was more than sixty-five per cent. “We know little about the health consequences—risks and benefits—of many of the cannabis products likely to be sold in nonmedical markets,” he said. Nor did we know how higher-potency products would affect THC consumption.
Essential (volatile) oil in hemp is quite different from hempseed oil. Examples of commercial essential oil product products are shown in Fig. 42. The essential oil is a mixture of volatile compounds, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and other terpenoid-like compounds that are manufactured in the same epidermal glands in which the resin of Cannabis is synthesized (Meier and Mediavilla 1998). Yields are very small—about 10 L/ha (Mediavilla and Steinemann 1997), so essential oil of C. sativa is expensive, and today is simply a novelty. Essential oil of different strains varies considerably in odor, and this may have economic importance in imparting a scent to cosmetics, shampoos, soaps, creams, oils, perfumes, and foodstuffs. Switzerland has been a center for the production of essential oil for the commercial market. Narcotic strains tend to be more attractive in odor than fiber strains, and because they produce much higher numbers of flowers than fiber strains, and the (female) floral parts provide most of the essential oil, narcotic strains are naturally adapted to essential oil production. Switzerland has permitted strains with higher THC content to be grown than is allowed in other parts of the world, giving the country an advantage with respect to the essential oil market. However, essential oil in the marketplace has often been produced from low-THC Cannabis, and the THC content of essential oil obtained by steam distillation can be quite low, producing a product satisfying the needs for very low THC levels in food and other commercial goods. The composition of extracted essential oil is quite different from the volatiles released around the fresh plant (particularly limonene and alpha-pinene), so that a pleasant odor of the living plant is not necessarily indicative of a pleasant-smelling essential oil. Essential oil has been produced in Canada by Gen-X Research Inc., Regina. The world market for hemp essential oil is very limited at present, and probably also has limited growth potential.
Short-term use of the drug impairs thinking and coordination. In long-term studies, teens who smoke marijuana have lower IQs later on, as well as structural differences in their brains, though scientists debate whether this is an effect of the drug or a result of habitual pot smokers seeking out less intellectually stimulating pursuits. A 2016 study on almost 300 students by the University of Montreal published in the journal Development and Psychopathology found that teens who start smoking around age 14 do worse on some cognitive tests by age 20 than non-smokers. They also have a higher school dropout rate. If they wait until age 17 to start, though, the smokers do not seem to have the same impairments, according to the study. 
Buying CBD oil online is problematical. A study from the University of Pennsylvania published in 2017 found that nearly 70 percent of products sold online do not contain the concentration of the oil listed on the label. The researchers bought and analyzed 84 products from 31 different companies and found that more than 42 percent were under-labeled, meaning that they contained more CBD than indicated. Another 26 percent were over-labeled, with less CBD than indicated. The researchers wrote that while studies haven’t shown that too much CBD can be harmful, products containing too much or too little may not give purchasers the effects they seek. In addition, the team reported that a number of products analyzed contained a significant amount of THC, which can cause undesired effects.
so you can just make up a new plant because it don’t get the user high? Hemp is Cannabis. PERIOD. The Farm Bill and No amount of silly dialog can create a new botanical entry. Hemp IS Cannabis. Cannabis Ruderalis, native to Russia, also called ditch weed….may be imported as Hemp but it IS Cannabis Ruderalis. The semantic name calling game is kept in motion because it serves the desires of those that profit on the confusion. Bottomline, there is Cannabis. Some Cannabis can be used to fight disease. Oligodenroglioma (in my case) and some of it can be used to alter one’s outlook……but it’s all Cannabis. Grow it in South Carolina and call it Hemp, I say God bless you, bring it to my lab and it comes out as cannabis and it’s going to be called Cannabis. Disclaimer, while I do have oligodendroglioma, I do not personally have a lab ;). M.
My husband has RSD and we are considering CBD oil -= I would ask at Hempmed because the spray won't have enough in it. Our dgt';s friend has ovarian cancer and it is shrinking her tumors but the spray would never have been enough. I would get CBD oil and check with Hempmeds to see what they suggest. It isn't cheap but it does work. LOW dose Naltrexone about 4.5 mg is very helpful for RSD and is usually used for getting people off of drugs but is working on turning off the glial cells that surround the nerve that is causing the nerve to scream in pain. We are also using PeaPure that is out of the Netherlands and we are seeing a response, even though small. His other leg touched the painful leg without causing more severe pain. That is progress. We also are using Poison Ivy Cream through Meadowlake Farms that has helped the burning surface pain. Change your diet and get rid of Gluten and Sugar, anything that causes inflammation. This is to allow your own body to work. Absolutely do not use any pain killers as it will turn up your pain. all the Hydrocodone, etc causes neural inflammation and so it will keep cascading higher your pain. Hope this is helpful. Mary
Ananda Hemp is a tempting brand to say the least. They source their seeds from the largest hemp seed bank in the United States and have generational farmers grow their products. Plus, they offer excellent customer service with their products. However, I was disappointed that they had only two concentrations of tinctures available, one amounting to 200 mg and other being 600 mg.
Hashish (also spelled hasheesh, hashisha, or simply hash) is a concentrated resin cake or ball produced from pressed kief, the detached trichomes and fine material that falls off cannabis flowers and leaves.[179] or from scraping the resin from the surface of the plants and rolling it into balls. It varies in color from black to golden brown depending upon purity and variety of cultivar it was obtained from.[180] It can be consumed orally or smoked, and is also vaporised, or 'vaped'.[181] The term "rosin hash" refers to a high quality solventless product obtained through heat and pressure.[182]
Cannabis Indica – The annual plant of the Cannabaceae family is considered a species of the genus Cannabis, but separate from Cannabis sativa, and originating in the Hindu Kush Mountains and suited for cultivation in temperate climates. Used to induce sleep, the plant is described as relatively short and conical with dense branches and short, broad leaves, while Cannabis sativa is tall with fewer branches and long, narrow leaves.
Just as there was a shift from viewing disease as a state to thinking of it as a process, the same shift happened in definitions of health. Again, the WHO played a leading role when it fostered the development of the health promotion movement in the 1980s. This brought in a new conception of health, not as a state, but in dynamic terms of resiliency, in other words, as "a resource for living". 1984 WHO revised the definition of health defined it as "the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs and to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living; it is a positive concept, emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities".[10] Thus, health referred to the ability to maintain homeostasis and recover from insults. Mental, intellectual, emotional and social health referred to a person's ability to handle stress, to acquire skills, to maintain relationships, all of which form resources for resiliency and independent living.[9] This opens up many possibilities for health to be taught, strengthened and learned.
“Promoters often claim that the product is THC-free and its use will not show up on a drug test,” the NHRMC message reads. “Because CBD products are not FDA regulated, there is no guarantee what you are buying is THC-free. It may have various levels of THC depending on how it is produced, where it is manufactured and the potency/formulation of the product.”
So true. Hearst and Rockefeller did not want Hemp or any form of Cannabis interfering with their lucrative paper, pharmaceutical and oil industries. Hemp is versatile and renewable. It can be used for food, medicine, fuel, paper, clothing, plastic, building materials; just about anything paper and oil is used for. These bastard wealthy people have done a disservice to all people and for the sake of lining their already copiously rich pockets. They and those like them are criminals of the worst order
A recent study of mice with degenerative disc disease found that they experienced improvement with high doses of CBD. Researchers actually found reduced damage to the spin in their experimental population. While the exact mechanism and reasons for these results are unclear, it is certainly promising. More research needs to be done but this is certainly a good start.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not consider CBD or products that contain CBD to be dietary supplements. This is because CBD has been studied and approved for use as a new drug to treat epilepsy, which means it is outside the definition of a dietary supplement.5 There may be products available that are marked as dietary supplements, however the amount of cannabidiol they claim to contain may not be accurate.


Hemp is grown in temperate zones as an annual cultivated from seed and can reach a height of up to 5 metres (16 feet). Crops grow best in sandy loam with good drainage and require average monthly rainfall of at least 65 mm (2.5 inches) throughout the growing season. Crops cultivated for fibre are densely sowed and produce plants averaging 2–3 metres (6–10 feet) tall with almost no branching. Plants grown for oilseed are planted farther apart and are shorter and many-branched. The slender stalks are hollow except at the tip and base. The leaves are compound with palmate shape, and the flowers are small and greenish yellow. Seed-producing flowers form elongate, spikelike clusters growing on the pistillate, or female, plants. Pollen-producing flowers form many-branched clusters on staminate, or male, plants. Maximum yield and quality are obtained by harvesting soon after the plants reach maturity, indicated by the full blossoms and freely shedding pollen of the male plants. Although sometimes pulled up by hand, plants are more often cut off about 2.5 cm (1 inch) above the ground.
I have digenerative disc disease/4 bulgin discs was taking 9---10mg hydrocodones a day... i started with 3 drops of 300mg and within 5 mins started feeling better than i have theses last 6 years or so... not only that, the inflamation has decrease substantially, i wake up with energy and have begun to work out again... if im making it seem like a miracle drug... its because it is... so the first week i took 3 drops twice a day... now 3 weeks in... im taking about 5 drops 3 times a day and zero pain pills... for the first time in years i have taken control of my life agin... not depending on doctor scripts/bills etc....

Because C. sativa has been a neglected crop for so long in North America, there are only negligible genetic resources available on this continent. Most germplasm stocks of hemp are in Europe, and the largest and most important collection is the Vavilov Institute gene bank in Leningrad. Figure 11 shows THC concentrations in the Vavilov collection, as well as in our own collection, largely of European germplasm. A disturbingly high percentage of the collections have THC levels higher than 0.3%, making it difficult to incorporate these into breeding programs.


In September 2018, following its approval by the FDA for rare types of childhood epilepsy,[13] Epidiolex was rescheduled (by the Drug Enforcement Administration) as a Schedule V drug to allow for its prescription use.[14] This change applies only to FDA-approved products containing no more than 0.1 percent THC.[14] This allows GW Pharmaceuticals to sell Epidiolex, but it does not apply broadly and all other CBD-containing products remain Schedule I drugs.[14] Epidiolex still requires rescheduling in some states before it can be prescribed in those states.[65][66]
The clinical trials performed with Sativex have recently been assessed in two independent review articles (Barnes 2006; Pérez 2006). In a Phase II clinical trial in 20 patients with neurogenic symptoms (Wade et al 2003), Tetranabinex, Nabidiolex, and Sativex were tested in a double-blind RCT vs placebo (Table 1). Significant improvement was seen with both Tetranabinex and Sativex on pain (especially neuropathic), but post-hoc analysis showed symptom control was best with Sativex (p < 0.0001), with less intoxication than with THC-predominant extract.
I have/had ovarian/primary peritoneal cancer. I used thc/cbd oil pills I self made from the start. I am supposedly their “poster child”. I went thru with chemo and surgery. Oh that horror! But when I tried to tell two seperate doctors, the surgeon was all about it, and my oncologist threw a fit and said it was an anecdote. There are more than 100 studies at the NIH govt website.
As I research more I am disgusted with how we have all been deceived. I feel confident now with being able to research things on our own, at any moment in time, we can begin to take back our world. In the early 30’s one of the great media conspiracies unfolded. Publisher William Hearst, Dupont, the petroleum interests, the cotton lobby, the bankers and some ignorant politicians lead a crusade to ban hemp to line their pockets. Hemp can revolutionize our society. Please research and pass on!

Cannabis is used in three main forms: marijuana, hashish and hash oil. Marijuana is made from dried flowers and leaves of the cannabis plant. It is the least potent of all the cannabis products and is usually smoked or made into edible products like cookies or brownies (see Factsheet: Marijuana Edibles). Hashish is made from the resin (a secreted gum) of the cannabis plant. It is dried and pressed into small blocks and smoked. It can also be added to food and eaten. Hash oil, the most potent cannabis product, is a thick oil obtained from hashish. It is also smoked.
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