Cannabis use and psychotic symptoms and disorders are associated in the general population (see, for example, Degenhardt and Hall, 2001; Tien and Anthony, 1990) and in clinical samples of patients with schizophrenia (Mueser et al., 1992; Warner et al., 1994; Hambrecht and Hafner, 1996). The major contending hypotheses to explain the association have been: (i) that cannabis use precipitates schizophrenia in persons who are otherwise vulnerable; (ii) cannabis use is a form of self-medication for schizophrenia; and (iii) that the association arises from uncontrolled residual confounding by variables that predict an increased risk of cannabis use and of schizophrenia (Macleod et al., 2004).

Fig. 8. Scanning electron micrographs of the abaxial surface of a perigonal bract (which envelops the fruit). These bracts are the most intoxicating part of the plant, and may contain 20% THC, dry weight. The resin is synthesized both in stalked and sessile glands. Multicellular secretory glands (of phallic appearance), some broken stalks of these (note cellular appearance), and unicellular cystolith hairs (claw-like structures) are pictured. Fig. 9. Some important cannabinoids of cannabis resin. D9-THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol) is the chief intoxicant chemical and predominates in intoxicant strains, while the isomer D8-THC is usually present in no more than trace amounts. CBD (cannabidiol) is the chief non-intoxicant chemical, and predominates in non-intoxicant strains; it has sedative effects. The non-intoxicant CBN (cannabinol) is a frequent degradation or oxidation product. The non-intoxicant cannabichromene (CBC) is typically found in trace amounts in intoxicant strains. The non-intoxicant cannabigerol (CBG) is considered to be a precursor of the other cannbinoids (see Fig. 10).
CBD does not appear to have any psychotropic ("high") effects such as those caused by ∆9-THC in marijuana, but may have anti-anxiety and anti-psychotic effects.[10] As the legal landscape and understanding about the differences in medical cannabinoids unfolds, experts are working to distinguish "medical marijuana" (with varying degrees of psychotropic effects and deficits in executive function) – from "medical CBD therapies” which would commonly present as having a reduced or non-psychoactive side-effect profile.[10][59]
Although the environmental and biodiversity benefits of growing hemp have been greatly exaggerated in the popular press, C. sativa is nevertheless exceptionally suitable for organic agriculture, and is remarkably less “ecotoxic” in comparison to most other crops (Montford and Small 1999b). Figure 50 presents a comparison of the ecological friendliness of Cannabis crops (fiber, oilseed, and narcotics) and 21 of the world’s major crops, based on 26 criteria used by Montford and Small (1999a) to compare the ecological friendliness of crops.
A 2015 review found that the use of high CBD-to-THC strains of cannabis showed significantly fewer positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations, better cognitive function and both lower risk for developing psychosis, as well as a later age of onset of the illness, compared to cannabis with low CBD-to-THC ratios.[279] A 2014 Cochrane review found that research was insufficient to determine the safety and efficacy to using cannabis to treat schizophrenia or psychosis.[280] As of 2017, the molecular mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory and possible pain relieving effects of cannabis are under preliminary research.[281]
Hemp was made illegal to grow without a permit in the U.S. under the Controlled Substances Act passed in 1970 because of its relation to marijuana,[18] and any imported hemp products must meet a zero tolerance level.[92] Some states have made the cultivation of industrial hemp legal, but farmers in many states have not yet begun to grow it because of resistance from the federal Drug Enforcement Administration,[93] making "large-scale hemp growing" in the United States "not viable" as late as 2013.[94] In 2013, after the legalization of cannabis in the state, several farmers in Colorado planted and harvested several acres of hemp, bringing in the first hemp crop in the United States in over half a century.[95] Colorado,[96] Vermont, California, and North Dakota have passed laws enabling hemp licensure. All four states are waiting for permission to grow hemp from the DEA. Currently,[97] Oregon has licensed industrial hemp as of August 2009.[98] Congress included a provision in the Agricultural Act of 2014 that allowed colleges and state agencies to grow and conduct research on hemp in states where it is legal.[18] Hemp production in Kentucky, formerly the United States' leading producer, resumed in 2014.[99] Hemp production in North Carolina resumed in 2017,[100] and in Washington State the same year.[101] By the end of 2017, at least 34 U.S. states had industrial hemp programs.[102] In 2018, New York began taking strides in industrial hemp production, along with hemp research pilot programs at Cornell University, Binghamton University and SUNY Morrisville.[103]
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would take the oil and put about 2 or 3 dots behind his knee and to his surprise, the tingling went away right away. I found this hard to believe, but after hearing from some other people on the benefits of CBD, I decided to give it a try. It didn’t come cheap. I had to pay 50 dollars for an oz. but it was whole plant in full spectrum. The first night that I got restless leg syndrome and went into the bathroom and put 3 dots behind my knees on both legs it was only a matter of seconds before I
The regular followers of this blog would know that I suffer from back pain and sleep disorders. So, before I test out CBD products, I give myself a break from CBD to see how the product affects me fully. Fab CBD sells, 4 versions of the CBD Oil with 150mg, 300mg, 600mg and 1200mg. For people who like flavors with their oils, there are different flavors available too.
^ Jump up to: a b Resstel LB, Tavares RF, Lisboa SF, Joca SR, Corrêa FM, Guimarães FS (January 2009). "5-HT1A receptors are involved in the cannabidiol-induced attenuation of behavioural and cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats". British Journal of Pharmacology. 156 (1): 181–8. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2008.00046.x. PMC 2697769. PMID 19133999.
So, your ECS signals to your brain that you’re in pain. And, when your condition is chronic, it’s a constant stream of signals to your brain about the pain. What CBD Pain Cream does is binds to those receptors that are signaling the pain to your brain. † And, it calms that reaction to help erase the pain. So, in other words, CBD Chiro-Cream actually stops the pain, rather than suppressing it like most pain killers. † And, the fact that CBD Pain Cream works with your body means it’s better and healthier for you. All you have to do is apply it topically to the areas that hurt you and you’ll see a reduction in pain fast.
“This is a really powerful compound,” says Mikhail Kogan, the medical director of the George Washington University Center for Integrative Medicine. “I’ve seen it work for a lot of my patients.” He prescribes high-CBD strains of cannabis regularly for such illnesses as epilepsy, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, autoimmune disorders, autism and insomnia.
Public health also takes various actions to limit the health disparities between different areas of the country and, in some cases, the continent or world. One issue is the access of individuals and communities to health care in terms of financial, geographical or socio-cultural constraints to accessing and using services.[54] Applications of the public health system include the areas of maternal and child health, health services administration, emergency response, and prevention and control of infectious and chronic diseases.
Hi Lauren I've just started today with 250mg cbd oil. I'm starting low to see what happens. I've nerve damage across buttocks from a laminectomy. I've not been able to sit for 5 years. I've recently started with a muscle spasm in my left buttock and the muscle above is painful. It is only the first day, also tried a cbd night time tea as well. Do change in muscle pain so tight on my left hand side. How long before felt it starting to work please. I'm trying not to expect changes straightaway. I also take 1100mg gabapentin and 30mg amitriptyline and I hate both of them - they both can cause muscle tightness affecting the nerve. Thank you Lyn
Canadian experience with growing hemp commercially for the last 4 years has convinced many growers that it is better to use a single-purpose cultivar, seed or fiber, than a dual-purpose cultivar. The recent focus of Canadian hemp breeders has been to develop cultivars with high seed yields, low stature (to avoid channeling the plants’ energy into stalk, as is the case in fiber cultivars), early maturation (for the short growing seasons of Canada), and desirable fatty acid spectrum (especially gamma-linolenic acid).
Cannabis Ruderalis – Thought to be a cannabis species originating in central Asia, it flowers earlier, is much smaller, and can withstand much harsher climates than either Cannabis indica or Cannabis sativa. This species purportedly buds based on age rather than changes in length of daylight, known as auto-flowering. It’s used primarily for food production, such as hemp seeds and hemp seed oil.
There has been little high-quality research into the use of cannabidiol for epilepsy, and what there is is limited to refractory epilepsy in children.[16] While the results of using medical-grade cannabidiol in combination with conventional medication shows some promise, they did not lead to seizures being eliminated, and were associated with some minor adverse effects.[16]
Right now, there’s a good chance that you don’t really know what you’re getting from any source. Testing and labeling rules vary by state, but many states that allow legal cannabis also require some kind of testing to verify that the THC and CBD levels listed on the label are accurate. However, this testing is controversial, and results can vary widely between labs, Jikomes said. A study published in March found measurable variations in test results, with some labs consistently reporting higher or lower levels of cannabinoids than others. There are no guarantees that the label accurately reflects what’s in the product. For a 2015 study published in JAMA, researchers tested 75 products purchased in San Francisco, Los Angeles and Seattle and found that only 17 percent were accurately labeled. More than half of the products contained significantly lower levels of cannabinoids than the label promised, and some of them contained only negligible amounts of the compounds. “We need to come up with ways to confidently verify the composition of cannabis products and make this information available to consumers,” Jikomes said.
This is good news for the best CBD oil companies because the Farm Bill allows for the legal cultivation of industrial hemp, under certain circumstances, which can be a source of CBD. But CBD can also come from non-industrial hemp, namely the marijuana plant that most are more familiar with. Therefore, whether or not CBD oil for pain is legal can be a question of which “version” of the cannabis plant it was sourced from. If it was sourced from industrial hemp, (which contains less than 0.3% THC by volume), and it was cultivated under the Farm Bill, then it is legal.
Medical marijuana can soothe nausea and increase appetite, quiet pain, soothe anxiety and even reduce epileptic seizures. Other research on the healing effects of cannabis is being examined. For example, research suggests that THC may be able to improve memory according to a 2016 study on mice. More than half of the United States has legalized marijuana for medical use.
Fiberboard. In North America the use of nonwood fibers in sheet fiberboard (“pressboard” or “composite board”) products is relatively undeveloped. Flax, jute, kenaf, hemp, and wheat straw can be used to make composite board. Wheat straw is the dominant nonwood fiber in such applications. Although it might seem that hemp bast fibers are desirable in composite wood products because of their length and strength, in fact the short fibers of the hurds have been found to produce a superior product (K. Domier, pers. commun.). Experimental production of hemp fiberboard has produced extremely strong material (Fig. 22). The economic viability of such remains to be tested. Molded fiberboard products are commercially viable in Europe (Fig. 23), but their potential in North America remains to be determined.

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In 2017, China imported more than $24 billion in agriculture products from the U.S. The world’s top wheat consumer, China and purchased 1.6 million tons of U.S. wheat worth $391 million. At the same time, China bought $14 billion in soybeans for personal and animal consumption from the U.S. last year--more than any other agricultural commodity, and the country's corn imports from the U.S. were worth $160 million.
I strongly agree they really are greedy and money hungry. Isn’t it always funny how the big ones fall sooner or later? The government can’t have everything, there are just some things that belong to the people. Medicine plants in general have been around since the start of creation, and it looks like we’re just finding out which ones they are. Our forefathers know which ones they were and they knew how to use them but it’s been a forgotten skill some generations have forgotten since modern medicine took over. That’s not right. I saw some articles where the government was going to try to once again outlaw hemp and cannabis. I say if you really want some before it’s outlawed, grab up as much as you can and hide it somewhere good where no one but you can ever find it. I would highly recommend putting it in an airtight container with as many other airtight layers around it as possible. That way, it will never be found by anyone who’s not supposed to find it. The best advantage is to have enough handy to take care of yourself for life while everyone not in on ditching big Pharma is dying. If hamper and cannabis are outlawed, only the elite will be the ones still standing in the end
Elixinol has a wide range of products, but their CBD Tincture does the trick. It’s the cream of the crop regarding CBD oils and that reflects in its price. One dropper (1mg) from the 300 series contains 10mg of CBD. This allows you to get precise amounts of CBD and no guess work is required. Elixinol has received numerous awards for their products and extraction process.
Several of the cannabinoids are reputed to have medicinal potential: THC for glaucoma, spasticity from spinal injury or multiple sclerosis, pain, inflammation, insomnia, and asthma; CBD for some psychological problems. The Netherlands firm HortaPharm developed strains of Cannabis rich in particular cannabinoids. The British firm G.W. Pharmaceuticals acquired proprietary access to these for medicinal purposes, and is developing medicinal marijuana. In the US, NIH (National Institute of Health) has a program of research into medicinal marijuana, and has supplied a handful of individuals for years with maintenance samples for medical usage. The American Drug Enforcement Administration is hostile to the medicinal use of Cannabis, and for decades research on medicinal properties of Cannabis in the US has been in an extremely inhospitable climate, except for projects and researchers concerned with curbing drug abuse. Synthetic preparations of THC—dronabinol (Marinol®) and nabilone (Cesamet®)—are permitted in some cases, but are expensive and widely considered to be less effective than simply smoking preparations of marijuana. Relatively little material needs to be cultivated for medicinal purposes (Small 1971), although security considerations considerably inflate costs. The potential as a “new crop” for medicinal cannabinoid uses is therefore limited. However, the added-value potential in the form of proprietary drug derivatives and drug-delivery systems is huge. The medicinal efficacy of Cannabis is extremely controversial, and regrettably is often confounded with the issue of balancing harm and liberty concerning the proscriptions against recreational use of marijuana. This paper is principally concerned with the industrial uses of Cannabis. In this context, the chief significance of medicinal Cannabis is that, like the issue of recreational use, it has made it very difficult to rationally consider the development of industrial hemp in North America for purposes that everyone should agree are not harmful.
I have neuropathic pain. I’ve tried 3 brands now, this last one being less expensive. I “think” it’s helping a little bit…. maybe it’s wishful thinking. I never really knew how much to take. There is so much confusion on dosing, so I just take a dropper full now. Maybe that’s too much, maybe not. Should I take it twice a day, or once? I find it very hard to compare brand to brand. Thank you for your detailed, informative article. If anyone would care to share how much oil they take daily, I would appreciate it. I’m just trying to get a rough idea of what’s normal, an average. thanks.
Cannabis has held sacred status in several religions. It has been used in an entheogenic context – a chemical substance used in a religious, shamanic, or spiritual context[59] - in the Indian subcontinent since the Vedic period dating back to approximately 1500 BCE, but perhaps as far back as 2000 BCE. There are several references in Greek mythology to a powerful drug that eliminated anguish and sorrow. Herodotus wrote about early ceremonial practices by the Scythians, thought to have occurred from the 5th to 2nd century BCE. In modern culture the spiritual use of cannabis has been spread by the disciples of the Rastafari movement who use cannabis as a sacrament and as an aid to meditation. The earliest known reports regarding the sacred status of cannabis in the Indian subcontinent come from the Atharva Veda estimated to have been written sometime around 2000–1400 BCE.[60]

Hempseed's amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk, eggs and soy.[21] Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), which attempt to measure the degree to which a food for humans is a "complete protein", were 0.49–0.53 for whole hemp seed, 0.46–0.51 for hempseed meal, and 0.63–0.66 for hulled hempseed.[22]
I don’t know a whole lot about the plants but a friend of mine who did weed told me hamper is just the stem of the cannabis. He would know, I wouldn’t. Sadly though he died June 10 of 2018 of stage 4 lung cancer. He was a heavy smoker and I just couldn’t be around it despite our best efforts to set up a ventilation system to fan the smoke out. I must be allergic to secondhand smoke though because I keep getting bronchitis every time I’m exposed to it for long enough and it doesn’t really take a real long time even under the best conditions. Second hand weed smoke really didn’t help either, with me smoke a smoke and I just can’t be around it as it becomes a serious issue. I’m still struggling with trying to get the junk out of my respiratory system that keeps building up in the very upper part of it
^ Blest-Hopley G, Giampietro V, Bhattacharyya S (May 2018). "Residual effects of cannabis use in adolescent and adult brains - A meta-analysis of fMRI studies". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 88: 26–41. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.03.008. PMID 29535069. This may reflect the multitude of cognitive tasks employed by the various studies included in these meta-analyses, all of which involved performing a task thereby requiring the participant to reorient their attention and attempt to solve the problem at hand and suggest that greater engagement of this region indicates less efficient cognitive performance in cannabis users in general, irrespective of their age.
Cannabinoid agonists produce many effects beyond those mediated directly on receptors, including anti-inflammatory effects and interactions with various other neurotransmitter systems (previously reviewed (Russo 2006a). Briefly stated, THC effects in serotonergic systems are widespread, including its ability to decrease 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from platelets (Volfe et al 1985), increase its cerebral production and decrease synaptosomal uptake (Spadone 1991). THC may affect many mechanisms of the trigeminovascular system in migraine (Akerman et al 2003; Akerman et al 2004; Akerman et al 2007; Russo 1998; Russo 2001). Dopaminergic blocking actions of THC (Müller-Vahl et al 1999) may also contribute to analgesic benefits.
Because hemp-derived CBD currently lacks labeling and purity standards that are required of cannabis products sold at legal dispensaries, it exists in a regulatory limbo that laws don’t yet address. In the meantime, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health has announced that starting in July, putting CBD in food products will cost businesses points on their health inspections.
“Promoters often claim that the product is THC-free and its use will not show up on a drug test,” the NHRMC message reads. “Because CBD products are not FDA regulated, there is no guarantee what you are buying is THC-free. It may have various levels of THC depending on how it is produced, where it is manufactured and the potency/formulation of the product.”
Cannabidiol (CBD) oil is used by some people with chronic pain. CBD oil may reduce pain, inflammation, and overall discomfort related to a variety of health conditions. CBD oil is a product made from cannabis. It’s a type of cannabinoid, a chemical found naturally in marijuana and hemp plants. It doesn’t cause the “high” feeling often associated with cannabis, which is caused by a different type of cannabinoid called THC.

In the United States, the legality of medical marijuana varies in substantial ways from state to state. There are currently 29 US states with legal medical cannabis laws, as well as the District of Columbia. That leaves 21 states where medical marijuana is entirely prohibited. Marijuana cultivation, possession, and use in any form is illegal at the federal level.

Cannabis most likely originates from Central Asia, as archeological evidence indicates that it was already cultivated in China for food and fiber 10 000 years ago. Even in ancient Egyptian mummies, clues have been found for the use of Cannabis as food or medicine.25 In fact, Cannabis is one of the oldest known medicinal plants and is described in almost every ancient handbook on plant medicine, most commonly in the form of a tincture or a tea.26,27 Some religions were closely related with the properties of the Cannabis plant. For example, in Hindu legend, Cannabis is believed to be the favorite food of the god Shiva, because of its energizing properties. As Cannabis spread from Asia toward the West, almost every culture came into contact with this miracle plant. Nowadays, varieties of Cannabis can be found in all temperate and tropical zones, except in humid, tropical rain forests.28
^ Jump up to: a b This paper begins with a history of hemp use and then describes how hemp was constructed as a dangerous crop in the U.S. The paper then discusses the potential of hemp as an alternative crop. Luginbuhl, April M. (2001). "Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L): The geography of a controversial plant". The California Geographer (PDF). 41. California Geographical Society. pp. 1–14. Retrieved 2013-03-28. Hemp contains less than 1% THC, or tetrahydrocannabinols, the psychoactive property in marijuana. In other words, smoking hemp cannot create a 'high.' ... The dense growth of hemp eliminates other weeds.... The best growing technique for hemp, planting 300 to 500 plants per square meter, also helps authorities easily tell the hemp from marijuana, which is a plant that is less densely cultivated. (Roulac 1997; 149).

"Production differences depend on whether the cannabis plant is grown for fiber/oilseed or for medicinal/recreational uses. These differences involve the varieties being grown, the methods used to grow them, and the timing of their harvest (see discussion in 'Hemp' and 'Marijuana,' below). Concerns about cross-pollination among the different varieties are critical. All cannabis plants are open, wind and/or insect pollinated, and thus cross-pollination is possible.


Plastic composites for automobiles are the second most important component of the hemp industry of the EU. Natural fibers in automobile composites are used primarily in press-molded parts (Fig. 18). There are two widespread technologies. In thermoplastic production, natural fibers are blended with polypropylene fibers and formed into a mat, which is pressed under heat into the desired form. In thermoset production the natural fibers are soaked with binders such as epoxy resin or polyurethane, placed in the desired form, and allowed to harden through polymerization. Hemp has also been used in other types of thermoplastic applications, including injection molding. The characteristics of hemp fibers have proven to be superior for production of molded composites. In European manufacturing of cars, natural fibers are used to reinforce door panels, passenger rear decks, trunk linings, and pillars. In 1999 over 20,000 t of natural fiber were used for these purposes in Europe, including about, 2,000 t of hemp. It has been estimated that 5–10 kg of natural fibers can be used in the molded portions of an average automobile (excluding upholstery). The demand for automobile applications of hemp is expected to increase considerably, depending on the development of new technologies (Karus et al. 2000).
Hi Diane, how did you go on with the CBD oil please. If it worked how long before you saw any results. I'm scared of flaring everything. Nerve damage across buttocks from a surgeon who found the nerve stuck to the bulge during a laminectomy operation and prised it off. I haven't sat for 5 years and getting worse. A muscle in my buttock is now throbbing constantly and causing pain to the muscle above. I've only started taking it today but the muscle pain is still as painful. Does it take a while for it to work. Only started on low dose to see what happens. Thank you Lyn

• Speaking of which: Has it been third-party tested? Nearly every expert Health spoke to agreed that your CBD products should be tested by a third party to confirm the label's accuracy. This is a real concern in the industry—take the 2017 Journal of the American Medical Association study, for example, which tested 84 CBD products and found that 26% contained lower doses than stated on the bottle. Look for a quality assurance stamp or certificate of analysis from a third party (aka not the actual brand) or check the retailer's website if you don't see it on the product's label.


Pinfold Consulting. 1998. (G. Pinfold Consulting Economists Ltd. and J. White, InfoResults Ltd.). A maritime industrial hemp product marketing study. Prepared for Nova Scotia Agriculture and Marketing (Marketing and Food Industry Development), and New Brunswick Agriculture & Rural Development (Marketing and Business Development). agri.gov.ns.ca/pt/agron/hemp/hempms.htm
Unfortunately due to strict FDA regulations I am unable to make claims on our products based on your specific needs, I can however say that CBD is a natural anti-inflammatory and could assist. I can also share our top selling products in each category. Please view the links below:http://cbdoilreview.org/product/elixinol-cbd-oil-extract-x-pen-1000mg/http://cbdoilreview.org/product/endoca-hemp-oil-drops-1500mg/http://cbdoilreview.org/product/elixinol-hemp-oil-drops-regular-300mg/http://cbdoilreview.org/product/elixinol-cbd-hemp-oil-capsules-900mg/https://cbdoilreview.org/product/vape-bright-starter-pack-200-mg/This is also a great link to some pages that you may find helpful https://cbdoilreview.org/cbd-cannabidiol/
so you can just make up a new plant because it don’t get the user high? Hemp is Cannabis. PERIOD. The Farm Bill and No amount of silly dialog can create a new botanical entry. Hemp IS Cannabis. Cannabis Ruderalis, native to Russia, also called ditch weed….may be imported as Hemp but it IS Cannabis Ruderalis. The semantic name calling game is kept in motion because it serves the desires of those that profit on the confusion. Bottomline, there is Cannabis. Some Cannabis can be used to fight disease. Oligodenroglioma (in my case) and some of it can be used to alter one’s outlook……but it’s all Cannabis. Grow it in South Carolina and call it Hemp, I say God bless you, bring it to my lab and it comes out as cannabis and it’s going to be called Cannabis. Disclaimer, while I do have oligodendroglioma, I do not personally have a lab ;). M.
You don’t always want to believe the experts, trust me on this. In fact I’ve had certain issues often on over the years were natural alternatives were the key to natural healing. In fact, when dealing with a fracture many years ago, if you recall it took about six weeks to heal. Mine healed in four or less. Now getting back to the hemp oil, It actually helps with arthritis pain in my case. I’ve also noticed if I up my magnesium levels I have lesser of a chance of having a myoclonic seizure. If you really do your homework, you’ll find out but nutritional deficiencies cause a whole host of problems if not most of them. If we weren’t meant to have the plant, it wouldn’t be here as it serves a purpose
Executives from Canopy Growth CGC, -1.22% WEED, -1.27%  and rival Aurora Cannabis Inc. ACB, -0.88% ACB, -0.83%  both discussed their hemp operations on September-quarter earnings calls that included disappointing results related to early recreational pot sales. Aurora declined to comment on the latest developments and Canopy did not make executives available by the time of publication.

A mixture of fiberglass, hemp fiber, kenaf, and flax has been used since 2002 to make composite panels for automobiles.[37] The choice of which bast fiber to use is primarily based on cost and availability. Various car makers are beginning to use hemp in their cars, including Audi, BMW, Ford, GM, Chrysler, Honda, Iveco, Lotus, Mercedes, Mitsubishi, Porsche, Saturn, Volkswagen[38] and Volvo. For example, the Lotus Eco Elise[39] and the Mercedes C-Class both contain hemp (up to 20 kg in each car in the case of the latter).[40]
Grant says this may lead to a “dampening” or mellowing of some neurochemical processes, including those linked to pain. “CBD may also react with other receptors, like those for serotonin, and it may have actions that reduce the inflammatory molecules produced whenever there is tissue damage or bacteria coming in,” he says. “But we really don’t know the mechanisms.”
If medical marijuana is illegal in a given state, THC levels determine whether a CBD product is illicit or not. In most places, the limit is extremely low. We’re talking under 1 percent THC, with some states opting for a cap as low as 0.3 percent. In this case, the only source that would work is hemp, and CBD products will, therefore, be hemp-derived.

The tricky part is that there's some evidence suggesting CBD works best for pain when combined with a little THC, says Dr. Danesh. "Depending on what type of pain you have, you might be able to do just CBD, but sometimes you need CBD and THC." This makes accessing a product that will actually help you more difficult due to different regulations in each state. In New York, where Dr. Danesh practices, for example, CBD is available over the counter. But as soon as you add THC, you need a prescription.
A wide variety of hemp clothing, footwear, and food products are now available in North America. Some American manufacturers and distributors have chosen to exploit the association of hemp products with marijuana in their advertising. Such marketing is unfortunate, sending the message that some in the industry are indifferent to the negative image that this generates in the minds of much of the potential consuming public. Admittedly, such advertising works. But marketing based on the healthful and tasteful properties of hemp food products, the durable nature of hemp textiles, and the environmental advantages of the crop has proven to be widely acceptable, and is likely to promote the long term development of hemp industries.

Late last year, the commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, Scott Gottlieb, announced a federal crackdown on e-cigarettes. He had seen the data on soaring use among teen-agers, and, he said, “it shocked my conscience.” He announced that the F.D.A. would ban many kinds of flavored e-cigarettes, which are especially popular with teens, and would restrict the retail outlets where e-cigarettes were available.
In a Phase II double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 5-week study of 56 rheumatoid arthritis patients with Sativex (Blake et al 2006), employed nocturnal treatment only to a maximum of 6 sprays per evening (16.2 mg THC + 15 mg CBD). In the final treatment week, morning pain on movement, morning pain at rest, DAS-28 measure of disease activity, and SF-MPQ pain at present all favored Sativex over placebo (Table 1).
The maintenance and promotion of health is achieved through different combination of physical, mental, and social well-being, together sometimes referred to as the "health triangle."[24][25] The WHO's 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion further stated that health is not just a state, but also "a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities."[26]
Figuring out how much CBD oil to take can feel like trying to navigate through a complicated maze. The sheer volume of CBD brands on the market can create confusion for consumers, and when you take a closer look, it’s not difficult to understand why. Not only do vendors use different source materials (CBD-rich cannabis vs. industrial hemp, different strains, etc.), but they also implement different extraction techniques .
In an interview with the Herald Times Online, Dr. Gary Gettelfinger, who practices out of the Indiana University Health Pain Center, said he is thrilled with Indiana’s new law allowing CBD to be legally sold in Indiana. “I’m excited for my patients,” Gettelfinger said. “The fact of the matter is, (CBD) is working, and nothing good ever came without a fight.”

In an interview with the Herald Times Online, Dr. Gary Gettelfinger, who practices out of the Indiana University Health Pain Center, said he is thrilled with Indiana’s new law allowing CBD to be legally sold in Indiana. “I’m excited for my patients,” Gettelfinger said. “The fact of the matter is, (CBD) is working, and nothing good ever came without a fight.”
Cannabinoids may offer significant “side benefits” beyond analgesia. These include anti-emetic effects, well established with THC, but additionally demonstrated for CBD (Pertwee 2005), the ability of THC and CBD to produce apoptosis in malignant cells and inhibit cancer-induced angiogenesis (Kogan 2005; Ligresti et al 2006), as well as the neuroprotective antioxidant properties of the two substances (Hampson et al 1998), and improvements in symptomatic insomnia (Russo et al 2007).
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When suffering from chronic pain, it can be difficult to find lasting and effective pain relief. Taking CBD oil for pain can be the perfect solution, especially when you consider how bleak the other options can appear. You can suffer through medications that do not provide enough relief, or, you can take a variety of prescribed pharmaceuticals that can carry significant side effects that can further diminish your health and quality of life.
Experimental studies have also been conducted in order to assess the effect of cannabis use on schizophrenia. D’Souza et al. (2004) administered varying levels of the main ingredient in cannabis to healthy individuals with a history of cannabis exposure (but not abuse) and found that the subjects in the study displayed both positive and negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia, although all symptoms disappeared by about 3 h. D’Souza et al. (2005) conducted a follow-up study in which they followed the same protocol, but with clinically stable schizophrenia patients. Again, they found brief increases in positive symptoms, even if the patients were already taking antipsychotics.
"However, it is clear that, even prior to the 2018 Farm Bill, North Carolina was producing hemp flowers legally by licensed growers. The 2018 Farm Bill effectively moved oversight from the DEA to the U.S. Department of Agriculture for hemp and all its derivatives and extracts. At the same time, the law removed CBD that is produced by licensed growers of industrial hemp from the controlled substance list. The USDA has not developed its program yet – the Farm Bill was only signed in December 2018 – so we are still operating our NC Pilot program and licensing farmers under that."
The first of Berenson’s questions concerns what has long been the most worrisome point about cannabis: its association with mental illness. Many people with serious psychiatric illness smoke lots of pot. The marijuana lobby typically responds to this fact by saying that pot-smoking is a response to mental illness, not the cause of it—that people with psychiatric issues use marijuana to self-medicate. That is only partly true. In some cases, heavy cannabis use does seem to cause mental illness. As the National Academy panel declared, in one of its few unequivocal conclusions, “Cannabis use is likely to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia and other psychoses; the higher the use, the greater the risk.”
The United Kingdom and Germany resumed commercial production in the 1990s. British production is mostly used as bedding for horses; other uses are under development. Companies in Canada, the UK, the United States, and Germany, among many others, process hemp seed into a growing range of food products and cosmetics; many traditional growing countries still continue to produce textile-grade fibre.
While research into the effects of CBD on specific conditions is important, a broader perspective on the relationship between CBD and the human body is necessary to understand how this unique compound works. Interestingly, many of the conditions that are supposedly helped by CBD have no well-understood cause, from acne to Alzheimer’s disease. However, one of the few common denominators between these conditions is the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in their causes.
The plant is also known as hemp, although this term is often used to refer only to varieties of Cannabis cultivated for non-drug use. Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, hemp seeds and their oils, hemp leaves for use as vegetables and as juice, medicinal purposes, and as a recreational drug. Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber. To satisfy the UN Narcotics Convention, some cannabis strains have been bred to produce minimal levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent. Some strains have been selectively bred to produce a maximum of THC (a cannabinoid), the strength of which is enhanced by curing the flowers. Various compounds, including hashish and hash oil, are extracted from the plant.[8]
But experimental anxiety, which is when stressors are applied to make a volunteer feel anxious for a test, is different than clinical anxiety, and long-term, rigorous clinical trials are necessary to find CBD’s real-life effects on patients. Several are under way right now, including one Blessing is conducting at NYU, but the process of completing those, finding appropriate dosages, and creating a consistent drug that can meet Food and Drug Administration approval standards takes time. “Getting into the full pipeline of FDA approval is probably eight to 10 years away,” Blessing says.
Due to almost a century of misinformation about Cannabis, the distinction between Cannabis and its two primary species — hemp and marijuana — has become unclear to the many and some even consider the three plants to be one in the same. Because of this, the three terms are often used interchangeably, which has created difficulties when understanding the usage and benefits of Hemp vs Marijuana and Cannabis in general.
However, given the independent tests published on the official website, the concentration is more than enough for successful and quick pain relief. Also, the extremely low percentage of THC makes the oil safe and legal, as it is not psychoactive. The CBD oil is sold in a few varieties – different sizes, as well as different levels of concentration. The company recommends starting with the lowest dose before moving on. We would recommend this oil for daily use any time.
The objectivity of scientific evaluation of the medicinal value of marijuana to date has been questioned. In the words of Hirst et al. (1998): “The ...status of cannabis has made modern clinical research almost impossible. This is primarily because of the legal, ethical and bureaucratic difficulties in conducting trials with patients. Additionally, the general attitude towards cannabis, in which it is seen only as a drug of abuse and addiction, has not helped.” In a recent editorial, the respected journal Nature (2001) stated: “Governments, including the US federal government, have until recently refused to sanction the medical use of marijuana, and have also done what they can to prevent its clinical testing. They have defended their inaction by claiming that either step would signal to the public a softening of the so-called ‘war on drugs.’... The pharmacology of cannabinoids is a valid field of scientific investigation. Pharmacologists have the tools and the methodologies to realize its considerable potential, provided the political climate permits them to do so.” Given these current demands for research on medicinal marijuana, it will be necessary to produce crops of drug types of C. sativa.
There is some speculation that George Washington smoked the flower of the cannabis plant in order to achieve a recreational high ("Like all farmers, Washington probably sampled the quality and potency of what he grew, and he may have used this hemp to treat his chronic tooth aches"),[56] but there is no evidence in any of his writings that he grew hemp for anything other than industrial purposes. It is sometimes supposed that an excerpt from Washington's diary, which reads "Began to seperate [sic] the Male from the Female hemp at Do.&—rather too late" is evidence that he was trying to grow female plants for the THC found in the flowers. However, the editorial remark accompanying the diary states that "This may arise from their [the male] being coarser, and the stalks larger"[122] In subsequent days, he describes soaking the hemp[123] (to make the fibers usable) and harvesting the seeds,[124] suggesting that he was growing hemp for industrial purposes, not recreational.
The maintenance and promotion of health is achieved through different combination of physical, mental, and social well-being, together sometimes referred to as the "health triangle."[24][25] The WHO's 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion further stated that health is not just a state, but also "a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities."[26]
"In the past there has been ongoing tension between federal and state authorities over state hemp policies. After North Dakota passed its own state law authorizing industrial hemp production in 1999,62 researchers repeatedly applied for, but did not receive, a DEA permit to cultivate hemp for research purposes in the state.63 Also in 2007, two North Dakota farmers were granted state hemp farming licenses and, in June 2007, filed a lawsuit in U.S. District Court (North Dakota) seeking 'a declaratory judgment' that the CSA 'does not prohibit their cultivation of industrial hemp pursuant to their state licenses.'64 The case was dismissed in November 2007.65 The case was appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals (Eighth Circuit) but was again dismissed in December 2009.66 The farmers filed an appeal in May 2010.67

Many monoecious varieties have also been described,[20] in which individual plants bear both male and female flowers.[21] (Although monoecious plants are often referred to as "hermaphrodites", true hermaphrodites – which are less common in Cannabis – bear staminate and pistillate structures together on individual flowers, whereas monoecious plants bear male and female flowers at different locations on the same plant.) Subdioecy (the occurrence of monoecious individuals and dioecious individuals within the same population) is widespread.[22][23][24] Many populations have been described as sexually labile.[25][26][27]

Given the uncertainties and handicaps associated with hemp, it is fortunate that there are compensating factors. As noted, as a crop hemp offers some real environmental advantages, particularly with regard to the limited needs for herbicides and pesticides. Hemp is therefore pre-adapted to organic agriculture, and accordingly to the growing market for products associated with environmentally-friendly, sustainable production. Hemp products are an advertiser’s dream, lending themselves to hyperbole (“healthiest salad oil in the world,” “toughest jeans on the market”). While the narcotics image of C. sativa is often disadvantageous, advertisers who choose to play up this association do so knowing that it will attract a segment of the consuming population. In general, the novelty of hemp means that many consumers are willing to pay a premium price. It might also be said that those who have entered the hemp industry have tended to be very highly motivated, resourceful, and industrious, qualities that have been needed in the face of rather formidable obstacles to progress. 

Although global abnormalities in white matter and grey matter are not associated with cannabis abuse, reduced hippocampal volume is consistently found. Amygdalar abnormalities are sometimes reported, although findings are inconsistent.[112][113][114] Preliminary evidence suggests that this effect is largely mediated by THC, and that CBD may even have a protective effect.[115]
Though clinical and anecdotal evidence suggests CBD’s benefits in managing different conditions, it became most famous for treating a rare and debilitating form of pediatric epilepsy. Dravet’s Syndrome is notoriously resistant to current approved treatment methods. Sufferers are plagued by seizures, often up to hundreds a day, that worsen as they age and can be life-threatening. Currently, treatment methods include having the child wear an eyepatch, specialized diets, and brain surgery, but all have mixed success rates.
The cultivation of hemp in the EU is heavily weighted toward fiber production over oilseed production. In 1999, the EU produced about 27,000 t of hemp fiber, but only about 6,200 t of hemp seeds, mostly in France, and 90% of this was used as animal feed (Karus et al. 2000). The seeds (Fig. 33) have traditionally been employed as bird and poultry feed, but feeding the entire seeds to livestock has been considered to be a poor investment because of the high cost involved (although subsidization in Europe allows such usage, especially in France where hemp seeds are not legally permitted in human food). As pointed out later, higher yield and better harvesting practices may make whole hempseed an economical livestock feed. Moreover, seed cake left after expressing the oil is an excellent feed. Efforts are underway in Europe to add value in the form of processed products for hemp, especially cosmetics and food but, as noted below, the North American market is already quite advanced in oilseed applications.

The first time I came across CBD was when I was visiting my brother in San Antonio, Texas 2 years back. The one day I had some serious back pain, My brother's neighbour suggested that I should try CBD oil for my pain as it helps his mom with her cancer pain, and directed me to SABotanicals, a local CBD store in San Antonio where I bought a 2000mg CBD oil.In the beginning, I was a sceptic, but it worked so well that I ordered three more bottles to last me for a few months. I must say that also felt relaxed but could do my work with no issues as it didn't make me high.To date, I'm still using CBD oil for my paid and came off pain medications completely.God gave us something great!
As one of the original CBD manufacturers, Green Roads reputation truly precedes them, and their pharmacist formulated manufacturing process is why we selected them as the best quality CBD oil on the market. They offer a range of CBD oil concentrations (100mg, 250mg, 350mg, 550mg, 1000mg, 1500mg, and 3,500mg) all of which allow you to view ingredients and test results from a 3rd party testing facility via a QR code on the box.
My dad has severe advanced stage Dementia. Will CBD oil help him at this point? He is now refusing to eat any solid food, but will accept most drinks.In addition, he has lost a great deal of weight even though they're giving him Mega Shakes containing a full meals worth of proteins, etc. He gets at least 4 of these a day..some which he refuses. Is his Dementia too far gone for CBD oils to help him?
Our bodies are thought to produce endocannabinoids by the billions every day. “We always thought the ‘runner’s high’ was due to the release of dopamine and endorphins. But now we know the euphoria is also from an endocannabinoid called anandamide,” its name derived from the Sanskrit word for bliss, says Joseph Maroon, M.D., clinical professor and vice chairman of neurosurgery at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. We produce these natural chemicals all day, but they fade quickly because enzymes pop up to destroy them. That’s where CBD comes in: By blocking these enzymes, CBD allows the beneficial compounds to linger. This is why Amanda Oliver, 31, a career consultant in Charleston, SC, pops a CBD gummy bear each night before bed. “I used to lie there tossing and turning as my mind raced from work projects to whether I had set the home alarm,” Oliver says. One piece of candy with 15 mg of CBD is enough to shut off her brain and facilitate sleep. She also swears by the CBD oil she takes at the height of her period, which she says quells her debilitating cramps.
Studies at Bejing's Hemp Research Center revealed the variety of plant uses, prompting China to expand its hemp production which is a mere fraction of its world-leading cotton production. China not only has the product, but they have the cultivation techniques and commercial technologies to capitalize on that supply. And they are ramping up to leverage their competitive hemp advantage, expecting an eager demand from U.S. manufacturers given hemp's rise in popular applications.
However, if it was sourced from actual marijuana (i.e. cannabis that contains more than 2% THC by volume), then it is technically illegal. Most of the best CBD oils for pain that you find in dispensaries in states like Colorado, California, and Washington (as well as other states where weed is legal) will have been extracted from marijuana plants — not industrial hemp plants. Unfortunately, this means that these products are not allowed to be sold online and shipped across state lines to “non-legal” states.
In 2017, China imported more than $24 billion in agriculture products from the U.S. The world’s top wheat consumer, China and purchased 1.6 million tons of U.S. wheat worth $391 million. At the same time, China bought $14 billion in soybeans for personal and animal consumption from the U.S. last year--more than any other agricultural commodity, and the country's corn imports from the U.S. were worth $160 million.

There is some speculation that George Washington smoked the flower of the cannabis plant in order to achieve a recreational high ("Like all farmers, Washington probably sampled the quality and potency of what he grew, and he may have used this hemp to treat his chronic tooth aches"),[56] but there is no evidence in any of his writings that he grew hemp for anything other than industrial purposes. It is sometimes supposed that an excerpt from Washington's diary, which reads "Began to seperate [sic] the Male from the Female hemp at Do.&—rather too late" is evidence that he was trying to grow female plants for the THC found in the flowers. However, the editorial remark accompanying the diary states that "This may arise from their [the male] being coarser, and the stalks larger"[122] In subsequent days, he describes soaking the hemp[123] (to make the fibers usable) and harvesting the seeds,[124] suggesting that he was growing hemp for industrial purposes, not recreational.


The main and only ingredient in CBD Pain Cream is Cannabidiol. This comes from the Marijuana plant, which has over 400 chemicals in it. Now, this won’t get you high, as it contains no THC. And, CBD is completely legal in all 50 states. Truly, CBD is a breakthrough for reducing pain, inflammation from chronic conditions, and even stress. † And, now you can get in in a convenient topical cream to help erase the pain right on the spot. Within a few minutes, you should notice your pain disappearing. And, CBD Pain Cream saves you from having to be dependent on prescriptions. †
While CBD still faces legal hurdles to go mainstream, beverage giants, food companies and others have begun to take serious interest in the roughly $2 billion U.S. market. Tilray Inc. TLRY, +0.68%  announced a partnership with Anheuser-Busch InBev SA BUD, -1.34%  this week to research marijuana-based beverages, and Constellation Brands Inc. STZ, -0.03%   has invested heavily in pot producer Canopy Growth Corp. Other large companies, like Molson Coors Brewing Co. TAP, -0.17%  , have invested in research, and Coca-Cola Co. KO, -0.26%  and others have at least considered making a play for the space.

After fighting the effects of thyroid cancerfor 12 years I wanted to die. Every day. Now, please understand that these were thoughts with no actions, I was just miserable in pain.After 1 week on the CBD oil, (5 drops under the toungue 2x per day) I am a different woman. I now have hope. Some of my emotional pain is presenting as physical pain, but IT'S LEAVING MY BODY.
Put simply, “indica” strains are those associated with a strong body-high, feelings of sedation and relaxation. For this reason, indicas are often thought of as the “heavier” strains of cannabis, offering stronger highs that impact the whole body. They’re popular among marijuana users as pain relieving and sleep-inducing strains. Indicas are especially popular among medical cannabis patients.

A rather thorough analysis of the scope of the illicit marijuana industry in Canada for 1998 is reported at www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/html/drugsituation.htm#Marihuana and summarized in MacLeod (1999). At least 800 tonnes (t) of marijuana were grown in Canada in 1998, representing a harvest of 4.7 million flowering plants. More than 50% of the marijuana available in Canada is grown domestically. An average mature plant was estimated to produce 170 g of “marketable substance.” The value of the Canadian crop is uncertain, but has been estimated to be in the billions of dollars annually (Heading 1998; MacLeod 1999).

Some CBD manufacturers have come under government scrutiny for wild, indefensible claims, such that CBD is a cure-all for cancer, which it is not. We need more research but CBD may be prove to be an option for managing anxiety, insomnia, and chronic pain. Without sufficient high-quality evidence in human studies we can’t pinpoint effective doses, and because CBD is currently is mostly available as an unregulated supplement, it’s difficult to know exactly what you are getting. If you decide to try CBD, talk with your doctor — if for no other reason than to make sure it won’t affect other medications you are taking.

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