Both in Canada and the US, the most critical problem to be addressed for commercial exploitation of C. sativa is the possible unauthorized drug use of the plant. Indeed, the reason hemp cultivation was made illegal in North America was concern that the hemp crop was a drug menace. The drug potential is, for practical purposes, measured by the presence of THC. THC is the world’s most popular illicit chemical, and indeed the fourth most popular recreational drug, after caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine. “Industrial hemp” is a phrase that has become common to designate hemp used for commercial non-intoxicant purposes. Small and Cronquist (1976) split C. sativa into two subspecies: C. sativa subsp. sativa, with less than 0.3% (dry weight) of THC in the upper (reproductive) part of the plant, and C. sativa subsp. indica (Lam.) E. Small & Cronq. with more than 0.3% THC. This classification has since been adopted in the European Community, Canada, and parts of Australia as a dividing line between cultivars that can be legally cultivated under license and forms that are considered to have too high a drug potential. For a period, 0.3% was also the allowable THC content limit for cultivation of hemp in the Soviet Union. In the US, Drug Enforcement Agency guidelines issued Dec. 7, 1999 expressly allowed products with a THC content of less than 0.3% to enter the US without a license; but subsequently permissible levels have been a source of continuing contention. Marijuana in the illicit market typically has a THC content of 5% to 10% (levels as high as 25% have been reported), and as a point of interest, a current Canadian government experimental medicinal marijuana production contract calls for the production of 6% marijuana. As noted above, a level of about 1% THC is considered the threshold for marijuana to have intoxicating potential, so the 0.3% level is conservative, and some countries (e.g. parts of Australia, Switzerland) have permitted the cultivation of cultivars with higher levels. It should be appreciated that there is considerable variation in THC content in different parts of the plant. THC content increases in the following order: achenes (excluding bracts), roots, large stems, smaller stems, older and larger leaves, younger and smaller leaves, flowers, perigonal bracts covering both the female flowers and fruits. It is well known in the illicit trade how to screen off the more potent fractions of the plant in order to increase THC levels in resultant drug products. Nevertheless, a level of 0.3% THC in the flowering parts of the plant is reflective of material that is too low in intoxicant potential to actually be used practically for illicit production of marijuana or other types of cannabis drugs. Below, the problem of permissible levels of THC in food products made from hempseed is discussed.
In the attempt to keep transparent and increase its credibility, Nuleaf Naturals CBD oils are sent to independent laboratories for tests. Tests reveal the concentration and purity standards. Results are published on the official website with links to the authorities conducting it. It is one of the reasons wherefore CBD oils are 100% legal all over the USA.
Executives from Canopy Growth CGC, -1.22% WEED, -1.27%  and rival Aurora Cannabis Inc. ACB, -0.88% ACB, -0.83%  both discussed their hemp operations on September-quarter earnings calls that included disappointing results related to early recreational pot sales. Aurora declined to comment on the latest developments and Canopy did not make executives available by the time of publication.
Henry Ford recognized the utility of hemp in early times. In advance of today’s automobile manufacturers, he constructed a car with certain components made of resin stiffened with hemp fiber (Fig. 19). Rather ironically in view of today’s parallel situation, Henry Ford’s hemp innovations in the 1920s occurred at a time of crisis for American farms, later to intensify with the depression. The need to produce new industrial markets for farm products led to a broad movement for scientific research in agriculture that came to be labeled “Farm Chemurgy,” that today is embodied in chemical applications of crop constituents.
The key is to effectively gauge exactly how much CBD oil it takes to start managing your pain. If you start off right away with a maximum dose of a 600 mg tincture, you will have no idea how much of the product it actually took to treat your condition, and how much you wasted (this is also important because you do not want to exceed dosage and end up developing a tolerance to the active cannabinoids).
In the meantime, some physicians are forging ahead — and cashing in. Joe Cohen is a doctor at Holos Health, a medical marijuana clinic in Boulder. I asked him what CBD is good for, and he read me a long list of conditions: pain, inflammation, nausea, vomiting, intestinal cramping, anxiety, psychosis, muscle spasms, hyperactive immune systems, nervous system degeneration, elevated blood sugar and more. He also claimed that CBD has anti-cancer properties and can regenerate brain cells and reduce the brain’s levels of amyloid beta — a kind of protein that’s been linked to Alzheimer’s disease. I asked for references, noting that most of these weren’t listed in the Academies report or a similar review published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. “I think you just have to Google search it,” he said. It’s true that a preliminary study found hints that cannabinoids might reduce beta amyloid proteins in human brain cells, but the study was done in cells grown in a lab, not in people. As for cancer, the FDA sent warning letters last year to four companies that were selling products that claimed to “prevent, diagnose, treat or cure” cancer.
Marijuana or marihuana (herbal cannabis),[167] consists of the dried flowers and subtending leaves and stems of the female Cannabis plant.[168][169][170][171] This is the most widely consumed form,[171] containing 3% to 20% THC,[172] with reports of up-to 33% THC.[173] This is the stock material from which all other preparations are derived. Although herbal cannabis and industrial hemp derive from the same species and contain the psychoactive component (THC), they are distinct strains with unique biochemical compositions and uses. Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of CBD, which decreases the psychoactive effects[174][175]
The major symptom of many short and long-term illnesses is pain, both chronic and acute. Disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis, Diabetic Neuropathy and others, whether derived from the primary or central nervous system, leave patients with unrelenting pain not easily controlled by common pain medications. Although few randomized clinical trials over sufficiently extended periods of time measuring the effects of cannabidiol oil intake on pain management exist, preliminary studies suggest the use of CBD’s in chronic pain management to be useful allowing an increase in quality of life and the ability to rest without pain.  There is some research out there that suggests this might be a good solution for those that are sensitive to other medications as well.  We have attached some Medical publications, News Articles and some videos that touch on this subject.
Dr. Dustin Sulak is the founder and director of Integr8 Health, a network of holistic health clinics specializing in cannabis therapeutics with offices in Maine and Massachusetts. His educational work is featured on Healer.com, a free online patient information resource. This article is adapted from a recent talk given by Dr. Sulak in Portland, Maine, where he discussed the staggering scope of... Read more 

Cannabis is used in three main forms: marijuana, hashish and hash oil. Marijuana is made from dried flowers and leaves of the cannabis plant. It is the least potent of all the cannabis products and is usually smoked or made into edible products like cookies or brownies (see Factsheet: Marijuana Edibles). Hashish is made from the resin (a secreted gum) of the cannabis plant. It is dried and pressed into small blocks and smoked. It can also be added to food and eaten. Hash oil, the most potent cannabis product, is a thick oil obtained from hashish. It is also smoked.
Thanks for your interest in our products. Unfortunately due to strict FDA regulations I am unable to make claims on our products based on your specific needs, I can though share our top selling products in each category. Please view the links below:http://cbdoilreview.org/product/elixinol-cbd-oil-extract-x-pen-1000mg/http://cbdoilreview.org/product/endoca-hemp-oil-drops-1500mg/http://cbdoilreview.org/product/elixinol-hemp-oil-drops-regular-300mg/http://cbdoilreview.org/product/elixinol-cbd-hemp-oil-capsules-900mg/https://cbdoilreview.org/product/vape-bright-thrive-cbd-vape-cartridge-200mg/As far as dosage goes, I would recommend reading through our page on dosing. I have attached that link below. https://cbdoilreview.org/cbd-cannabidiol/cbd-dosage/Hopefully these help.
This Farm Bill gives Trump Administration a powerful tool in their bargaining with China. As I wrote earlier this year in Forbes, China produces 50% of the world’s cannabis supply, with a large majority of that supply being the THC-lacking hemp variety; this gives China “massive economic potential” which “poses a threat to cannabis interests around the world and particularly in the U.S. market.”
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CBD concentrates typically contain the strongest dosage of CBD compared to any other CBD products. It can contain up to 10 times the average CBD products. Concentrates are also convenient in that it only takes a few seconds to consume. Overall, CBD concentrates seem to be most popular among customers who are extremely busy, yet seek high potency CBD.
The Drug Enforcement Agency and the Office of National Drug Control Policy of the US raised concerns over tests conducted from 1995 to 1997 that showed that consumption of hempseed products available during that period led to interference with drug-testing programs for marijuana use. Federal US programs utilize a THC metabolite level of 50 parts per billion in urine. Leson (2000) found that this level was not exceeded by consuming hemp products, provided that THC levels are maintained below 5 ppm in hemp oil, and below 2 ppm in hulled seeds. Nevertheless the presence of even minute trace amounts of THC in foods remains a tool that can be used by those wishing to prevent the hemp oilseed industry from developing.
For example, smoking pot is widely supposed to diminish the nausea associated with chemotherapy. But, the panel pointed out, “there are no good-quality randomized trials investigating this option.” We have evidence for marijuana as a treatment for pain, but “very little is known about the efficacy, dose, routes of administration, or side effects of commonly used and commercially available cannabis products in the United States.” The caveats continue. Is it good for epilepsy? “Insufficient evidence.” Tourette’s syndrome? Limited evidence. A.L.S., Huntington’s, and Parkinson’s? Insufficient evidence. Irritable-bowel syndrome? Insufficient evidence. Dementia and glaucoma? Probably not. Anxiety? Maybe. Depression? Probably not.

Thanks Donna, for great share! I use cbd oil every day. I refuse to go without it. I have no arthritic pain at all anymore. I had a hip replacement 3 years ago. I am in need of the other one to be replaced. I was laying awake crying at night because of my hip pain. After I started using the oil my hip has quit aching. I sometimes forget I even have a problem with it or my arthritis. Had I known about the oil before I had my hip replaced I never would have had the surgery. I am pain free. I use hemp oil. There are 20 mg of cannabiniol in each 1 ml dose https://cbdreamers.com/cbd-oil-for-pain
The human body has an endocannabinoid system that plays a regulatory role, impacting our brain, endocrine, and immune systems. The body naturally produces endocannabinoids that bind to receptors in the endocannabinoid system, regulating the body synergistically. However, cannabinoids from the cannabis plant (phytocannabinoids) can also bind to these receptors creating the effects that medical marijuana patients seek.

The 2014 US Farm Bill allows states that have passed their own industrial hemp legislation to grow industrial hemp for purposes of research and development. Several states — including Kentucky, Colorado, and Oregon — are already conducting hemp pilot projects. Many other states are currently pursuing similar legislation and programs. After many years of prohibition, American farmers are finally reacquainting themselves with industrial hemp.
As with a fermented food like kombucha, slight natural variations are normal and to be expected in a product such as CBD oil because it is made from living plants. Changes in the weather, soil, and water can all impact the biology of the source material. While we verify Certificates of Analysis (and take many other criteria into consideration during our review process), even the most reputable five-star companies have no way to control for every variable in this organic process.
While most supplements have a single recommended dose, CBD is different. The amount of CBD you take depends on your doctor’s recommendations and your own research into how CBD will work for your unique needs. In general, it’s smart to start with a medium dose of CBD. This way, you can increase or decrease the dose as needed. In addition, it’s recommended to start with one half ML (half a dropper) of CBD oil, because you can always take more if needed.
CBC is another lesser-known yet still crucial cannabinoid in marijuana, especially from a therapeutic perspective. While bereft of the psychoactive quality of THC (and to a lesser extent THCV), CBC is gaining popularity as an anxiety reducer. While research on cannabichromene lags behind others, there’s good reason to continue looking into its potential as a medicine.
To my understanding, neither CBD nor THC are effective for “severe” pain; rather, they work better for mild to moderate chronic pain. Often, with severe pain, the dosage of opiates can be decreased with concomitant use of medical cannabis or CBD and that decrease in dose makes their use safer. Concurrent use of THC does increase the analgesic effect of CBD, but it also adds the “high” which some people do not want as a side effect. 

The first of Berenson’s questions concerns what has long been the most worrisome point about cannabis: its association with mental illness. Many people with serious psychiatric illness smoke lots of pot. The marijuana lobby typically responds to this fact by saying that pot-smoking is a response to mental illness, not the cause of it—that people with psychiatric issues use marijuana to self-medicate. That is only partly true. In some cases, heavy cannabis use does seem to cause mental illness. As the National Academy panel declared, in one of its few unequivocal conclusions, “Cannabis use is likely to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia and other psychoses; the higher the use, the greater the risk.”
A few years ago, the National Academy of Medicine convened a panel of sixteen leading medical experts to analyze the scientific literature on cannabis. The report they prepared, which came out in January of 2017, runs to four hundred and sixty-eight pages. It contains no bombshells or surprises, which perhaps explains why it went largely unnoticed. It simply stated, over and over again, that a drug North Americans have become enthusiastic about remains a mystery. 

The gateway effect may appear due to social factors involved in using any illegal drug. Because of the illegal status of cannabis, its consumers are likely to find themselves in situations allowing them to acquaint with individuals using or selling other illegal drugs.[268][269] Utilizing this argument some studies have shown that alcohol and tobacco may additionally be regarded as gateway drugs;[270] however, a more parsimonious explanation could be that cannabis is simply more readily available (and at an earlier age) than illegal hard drugs. In turn alcohol and tobacco are easier to obtain at an earlier point than is cannabis (though the reverse may be true in some areas), thus leading to the "gateway sequence" in those individuals since they are most likely to experiment with any drug offered.[261]

The United Kingdom and Germany resumed commercial production in the 1990s. British production is mostly used as bedding for horses; other uses are under development. Companies in Canada, the UK, the United States, and Germany, among many others, process hemp seed into a growing range of food products and cosmetics; many traditional growing countries still continue to produce textile-grade fibre.
In November 2015, Uttarakhand became the first state of India to legalize the cultivation of hemp for industrial purposes.[235] Usage within the Hindu and Buddhist cultures of the Indian subcontinent is common, with many street vendors in India openly selling products infused with cannabis, and traditional medical practitioners in Sri Lanka selling products infused with cannabis for recreational purposes and well as for religious celebrations.[236] It was criminalized in the Indian subcontinent by the Dutch and then the British. India and Sri Lanka have allowed cannabis to be taken in the context of traditional culture for recreational/celebratory purposes and also for medicinal purposes.[236]
Fig. 8. Scanning electron micrographs of the abaxial surface of a perigonal bract (which envelops the fruit). These bracts are the most intoxicating part of the plant, and may contain 20% THC, dry weight. The resin is synthesized both in stalked and sessile glands. Multicellular secretory glands (of phallic appearance), some broken stalks of these (note cellular appearance), and unicellular cystolith hairs (claw-like structures) are pictured. Fig. 9. Some important cannabinoids of cannabis resin. D9-THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol) is the chief intoxicant chemical and predominates in intoxicant strains, while the isomer D8-THC is usually present in no more than trace amounts. CBD (cannabidiol) is the chief non-intoxicant chemical, and predominates in non-intoxicant strains; it has sedative effects. The non-intoxicant CBN (cannabinol) is a frequent degradation or oxidation product. The non-intoxicant cannabichromene (CBC) is typically found in trace amounts in intoxicant strains. The non-intoxicant cannabigerol (CBG) is considered to be a precursor of the other cannbinoids (see Fig. 10).
“We would strongly warn against using a vaporizer to vape CBD hemp oil products because we haven’t seen one yet that doesn’t contain thinning agents that can be very toxic,” Lee said. “Thinning agents like propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol should not be in a product that you’re going to eat or inhale. Flavoring agents that are added to CBD hemp products should be a red flag. I think they should be avoided because the FDA hasn’t approved any of these flavoring agents for being heated and inhaled.”
My mother has dementia/Alzheimers along with a broken knee that they will not repair do to her mental status. She is currently in a nursing home. I firmly believe her mental situation began with the over use of hydrocodone for over 30 years and was acerbated by the trauma of breaking and disconnecting her knee cap. Since weaning her off of her meds (still in progress) we have regained much of her consciousness. I want to try CBD to help in her recovery or to help slow down the disease. I cannot find a dosage recommendation plus the nursing home/doctor does not recommend it. I would need to give it to her when I am there visiting (about 3 - 4 times per week). Is there a recommended dosage for dementia/Alzheimers?
A 100-gram portion of hulled hemp seeds supplies 586 calories. They contain 5% water, 5% carbohydrates, 49% total fat, and 31% protein. Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value (DV) of protein per 100-gram serving.[20] Hemp seeds are a rich source of dietary fiber (20% DV), B vitamins, and the dietary minerals manganese (362% DV), phosphorus (236% DV), magnesium (197% DV), zinc (104% DV), and iron (61% DV). About 73% of the energy in hempseed is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids,[20] mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, oleic, and alpha-linolenic acids.[21]
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