Shut-eye overview Although sleep is essential for our health, its biological purpose is not fully understood. Oddly, the seemingly inactive state of sleep is actually a dynamic and critical process that helps us store memories, build immunity, repair tissue, regulate metabolism and blood pressure, control appetite and blood sugar, and process learning, along with a myriad of other physiological... Read more
Fig. 5. Typical architecture of categories of cultivated Cannabis sativa. Top left: narcotic plants are generally low, highly branched, and grown well-spaced. Top right: plants grown for oilseed were traditionally well-spaced, and the plants developed medium height and strong branching. Bottom left: fiber cultivars are grown at high density, and are unbranched and very tall. Bottom center: “dual purpose” plants are grown at moderate density, tend to be slightly branched and of medium to tall height. Bottom right: some recent oilseed cultivars are grown at moderate density and are short and relatively unbranched. Degree of branching and height are determined both by the density of the plants and their genetic background.
If you live with the pain of arthritis every day, you may find yourself cycling through numerous treatments trying to find relief. Some of these treatments may cause complications, adding to the distress of your arthritis. Applying a CBD Salve for arthritis pain can provide you with a path to relief without any harmful side effects. Below you will find out what you will receive with a Hemp Bombs CBD Pain Freeze and the benefits it provides ...
“What we know is that THC and CBD combined has a greater therapeutic effect than either one given alone,” Lee continued. “The best medicines to use are the medicines that have both THC and CBD. What we suggest to people – and I will emphasize we are not doctors – is that people should use products that have as much THC as possible, with the CBD, that doesn’t make them feel dysphoric or stoned.”
If your intention is to help treat chronic pain, then you may want to start out with a lower dose, and then proceed from there. If you notice effective results, you can downsize the dose, or likewise you can always up the dose until positive results are achieved. The key is to only increase your dosage in small increments so that you are able to pinpoint exactly how much CBD oil it takes to treat your condition. Be advised, though, that you should not exceed the recommended daily doses that are listed on the bottle and you should consult with a physician. 

His third question is whether cannabis serves as a gateway drug. There are two possibilities. The first is that marijuana activates certain behavioral and neurological pathways that ease the onset of more serious addictions. The second possibility is that marijuana offers a safer alternative to other drugs: that if you start smoking pot to deal with chronic pain you never graduate to opioids.
Studies at Bejing's Hemp Research Center revealed the variety of plant uses, prompting China to expand its hemp production which is a mere fraction of its world-leading cotton production. China not only has the product, but they have the cultivation techniques and commercial technologies to capitalize on that supply. And they are ramping up to leverage their competitive hemp advantage, expecting an eager demand from U.S. manufacturers given hemp's rise in popular applications.

The key is to effectively gauge exactly how much CBD oil it takes to start managing your pain. If you start off right away with a maximum dose of a 600 mg tincture, you will have no idea how much of the product it actually took to treat your condition, and how much you wasted (this is also important because you do not want to exceed dosage and end up developing a tolerance to the active cannabinoids).
About 9% of those who experiment with marijuana eventually become dependent according to DSM-IV (1994) criteria.[78] A 2013 review estimates daily use is associated with a 10-20% rate of dependence.[42] The highest risk of cannabis dependence is found in those with a history of poor academic achievement, deviant behavior in childhood and adolescence, rebelliousness, poor parental relationships, or a parental history of drug and alcohol problems.[138] Of daily users, about 50% experience withdrawal upon cessation of use (i.e. are dependent), characterized by sleep problems, irritability, dysphoria, and craving.[117] Cannabis withdrawal is less severe than withdrawal from alcohol.[139]
Opiates are another common pain solution and, unfortunately, they also present a significant number of problems. Opiate medications can be effective at reducing pain symptoms but they are often incredibly strong, causing sedation and a lack of functioning when trying to perform daily activities. A tolerance to opiates can develop over time which means higher and higher doses are required to achieve the same results. Opiates are also very habit forming. It is easy to misuse and overdose on opiates which is one of the reasons that North America is currently in the grip of an opioid crisis, with more than 115 people dying from opiate overdose in the United States every single day.
But even though it's infiltrating pretty much every corner of the wellness world (hi, vegan CBD brownies!) many people still find CBD a little confusing—especially when it comes to figuring out the right way to use it and how to make sure the stuff you're buying is, you know, actually legit. Below, we asked experts to answer the most pressing questions about CBD.
Can CBD oil help anxiety? Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical occurring in cannabis plants. It is possible to add CBD oil to food, and an increasing amount of evidence suggests that it may improve mental health, particularly anxiety. It does not seem to have adverse side effects, but CBD oil is illegal in some states. Learn more about CBD oil here. Read now
One of the most exciting applications of hemp lies in the extracted cannabinoids or CBD oil. According to the Washington Post, “dozens of studies have found evidence that the compound can treat epilepsy as well as a range of other illnesses, including anxiety, schizophrenia, heart disease, and cancer.” With the legalization of hemp, CBD can be regulated and researched much more than before to truly understand the medical efficacy for a wide range of diseases.
Hemp is the non THC variety of the Cannabis Sativa plant.  Hemp and marijuana are often confused, learn more about the difference on our hemp vs. marijuana page. The fiber, seeds and oil are incredible valuable and is why hemp is often called a “cash crop”.  Hemp is a very hearty plant and grows very quickly in very diverse soil conditions.  Cultivation of hemp for industrial purposes has been done by many civilizations for over 12,000 years.   Industrial hemp was the desired fiber used to manufacture rope, canvas, paper, and clothing until alternative textiles and synthetics for these purposes were discovered.  Although China has been the largest hemp producer over the years, other countries such as Australia and Canada are catching up.  It has been illegal for anyone to grow hemp in the United States as hemp is illegal under the marijuana prohibition act but Colorado has changed the laws and paved the way for industrial hemp production again in the United States(see hemp history). Now hemp oils, CBD, hemp plastics, hemp building materials and many hemp fiber products can be seen and purchased on the market. Hemp is truly an amazing plant with the potential to help “green up” many industries.
I always tell beginners for CBD use to use full-spectrum. The full-spectrum oils contain a lot of terpenes and other good stuff along with CBD and help much more when you suffer from anxiety attacks. CBDistillery also has a wide range of potencies to choose from. Unlike, FabCBD, which offers only limited capacities, CBDistillery’s oils go up to 5000mg per bottle and it is indeed one of the best CBD oils for pain in the market

Essential (volatile) oil in hemp is quite different from hempseed oil. Examples of commercial essential oil product products are shown in Fig. 42. The essential oil is a mixture of volatile compounds, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and other terpenoid-like compounds that are manufactured in the same epidermal glands in which the resin of Cannabis is synthesized (Meier and Mediavilla 1998). Yields are very small—about 10 L/ha (Mediavilla and Steinemann 1997), so essential oil of C. sativa is expensive, and today is simply a novelty. Essential oil of different strains varies considerably in odor, and this may have economic importance in imparting a scent to cosmetics, shampoos, soaps, creams, oils, perfumes, and foodstuffs. Switzerland has been a center for the production of essential oil for the commercial market. Narcotic strains tend to be more attractive in odor than fiber strains, and because they produce much higher numbers of flowers than fiber strains, and the (female) floral parts provide most of the essential oil, narcotic strains are naturally adapted to essential oil production. Switzerland has permitted strains with higher THC content to be grown than is allowed in other parts of the world, giving the country an advantage with respect to the essential oil market. However, essential oil in the marketplace has often been produced from low-THC Cannabis, and the THC content of essential oil obtained by steam distillation can be quite low, producing a product satisfying the needs for very low THC levels in food and other commercial goods. The composition of extracted essential oil is quite different from the volatiles released around the fresh plant (particularly limonene and alpha-pinene), so that a pleasant odor of the living plant is not necessarily indicative of a pleasant-smelling essential oil. Essential oil has been produced in Canada by Gen-X Research Inc., Regina. The world market for hemp essential oil is very limited at present, and probably also has limited growth potential.

Particular difficulties face the clinician managing intractable patients afflicted with cancer-associated pain, neuropathic pain, and central pain states (eg, pain associated with multiple sclerosis) that are often inadequately treated with available opiates, antidepressants and anticonvulsant drugs. Physicians are seeking new approaches to treatment of these conditions but many remain concerned about increasing governmental scrutiny of their prescribing practices (Fishman 2006), prescription drug abuse or diversion. The entry of cannabinoid medicines to the pharmacopoeia offers a novel approach to the issue of chronic pain management, offering new hope to many, but also stoking the flames of controversy among politicians and the public alike.


Medical marijuana refers to the use of the Cannabis plant as a physician-recommended herbal therapy as well as synthetic[191] THC and cannabinoids. So far, the medical use of cannabis is legal only in a limited number of territories, including Canada,[38] Belgium, Australia, the Netherlands, Spain, and many U.S. states. This usage generally requires a prescription, and distribution is usually done within a framework defined by local laws. There is evidence supporting the use of cannabis or its derivatives in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, neuropathic pain, and multiple sclerosis. Lower levels of evidence support its use for AIDS wasting syndrome, epilepsy, rheumatoid arthritis, and glaucoma.[78]
Cannabis has long had an image problem, because of the extremely widespread use of “narcotic” cultivars as illegal intoxicants. The US Drug Enforcement Administration has the mandate of eliminating illicit and wild marijuana, which it does very well (Fig. 54–56). Those interested in establishing and developing legitimate industries based on fiber and oilseed applications have had to struggle against considerable opposition from many in the political and law enforcement arenas. The United States National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) information web site on marijuana, which reflects a negative view of cannabis, is at www.nida.nih.gov/DrugPages/Marijuana.html, and reflects several basic fears: (1) growing Cannabis plants makes law enforcement more difficult, because of the need to ensure that all plants cultivated are legitimate; (2) utilization of legitimate Cannabis products makes it much more difficult to maintain the image of the illegitimate products as dangerous; (3) many in the movements backing development of hemp are doing so as a subterfuge to promote legalization of recreational use of marijuana; and (4) THC (and perhaps other constituents) in Cannabis are so harmful that their presence in any amount in any material (food, medicine or even fiber product) represents a health hazard that is best dealt with by a total proscription.
At least 38 states considered legislation related to industrial hemp in 2018. These bills ranged from clarifying existing laws to establishing new licensing requirements and programs. At least six states – Alaska, Arizona, Kansas, Missouri, New Jersey and Oklahoma – enacted legislation in 2018 establishing hemp research and industrial hemp pilot programs. Georgia created the House Study Committee on Industrial Hemp Production. States, already allowing for industrial hemp programs, continued to consider policies related to licensure, funding, seed certification, and other issues. For example, Tennessee amended its Commercial Feed Law to include hemp. 
Grant says this may lead to a “dampening” or mellowing of some neurochemical processes, including those linked to pain. “CBD may also react with other receptors, like those for serotonin, and it may have actions that reduce the inflammatory molecules produced whenever there is tissue damage or bacteria coming in,” he says. “But we really don’t know the mechanisms.”
Cannabidiol (CBD) oil is used by some people with chronic pain. CBD oil may reduce pain, inflammation, and overall discomfort related to a variety of health conditions. CBD oil is a product made from cannabis. It’s a type of cannabinoid, a chemical found naturally in marijuana and hemp plants. It doesn’t cause the “high” feeling often associated with cannabis, which is caused by a different type of cannabinoid called THC.
The genus Cannabis was first classified using the "modern" system of taxonomic nomenclature by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, who devised the system still in use for the naming of species.[60] He considered the genus to be monotypic, having just a single species that he named Cannabis sativa L. (L. stands for Linnaeus, and indicates the authority who first named the species). Linnaeus was familiar with European hemp, which was widely cultivated at the time. In 1785, noted evolutionary biologist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck published a description of a second species of Cannabis, which he named Cannabis indica Lam.[61] Lamarck based his description of the newly named species on plant specimens collected in India. He described C. indica as having poorer fiber quality than C. sativa, but greater utility as an inebriant. Additional Cannabis species were proposed in the 19th century, including strains from China and Vietnam (Indo-China) assigned the names Cannabis chinensis Delile, and Cannabis gigantea Delile ex Vilmorin.[62] However, many taxonomists found these putative species difficult to distinguish. In the early 20th century, the single-species concept was still widely accepted, except in the Soviet Union where Cannabis continued to be the subject of active taxonomic study. The name Cannabis indica was listed in various Pharmacopoeias, and was widely used to designate Cannabis suitable for the manufacture of medicinal preparations.[63]
Cannabis, also referred to as marijuana, has been an integral part of human civilizations for millennia. Both as a medicine and as a recreational substance, cannabis is the most popular illicit drug in the world. Today, the legal landscape that has prohibited marijuana for much of the twentieth century is giving way to decriminalization and full legalization. Legal, commercial cannabis businesses are already making an enormous economic impact. 

A chief argument that has been advanced in favor of developing hemp as a paper and pulp source has been that as a non-wood or tree-free fiber source, it can reduce harvesting of primary forests and the threat to associated biodiversity. It has been claimed that hemp produces three to four times as much useable fiber per hectare per annum as forests. However, Wong (1998) notes evidence that in the southern US hemp would produce only twice as much pulp as does a pine plantation (but see discussion below on suitability of hemp as a potential lumber substitute in areas lacking trees).
Infusions: Research and opportunity have driven chefs and chemists to infuse CBD into all sorts of readily usable products, such as edibles to elixirs, sublingual sprays, capsules and even topicals. Much like concentrates, each infusion sports specific combinations or isolations of CBD, THC, and other cannabinoids, allowing users to pick and choose products that suit their exact needs. CBD topicals, for example, are incredibly effective when applied to surface-level problems like bruises, joint aches, and headaches, and have been scientifically proven to successfully combat skin-based issues including pruritus with far broader implications.
Despite its centrality in human cultures across the globe, the European taxonomists who bequeathed Cannabis sativa its name didn’t quite get it right. When Carolus Linneaus came to naming the marijuana plant’s genus, he thought there was only one species, instead of the three we now know exist. Hence the confusion surrounding the fact that there are three distinct species of the genus Cannabis sativa, one of which is the sativa species.
The most valid claims to environmental friendliness of hemp are with respect to agricultural biocides (pesticides, fungicides, herbicides). Cannabis sativa is known to be exceptionally resistant to pests (Fig. 51), although, the degree of immunity to attacking organisms has been greatly exaggerated, with several insects and fungi specializing on hemp. Despite this, use of pesticides and fungicides on hemp is usually unnecessary, although introduction of hemp to regions should be expected to generate local problems. Cannabis sativa is also relatively resistant to weeds, and so usually requires relatively little herbicide. Fields intended for hemp use are still frequently normally cleared of weeds using herbicides, but so long as hemp is thickly seeded (as is always done when hemp is grown for fiber), the rapidly developing young plants normally shade out competing weeds.
Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana, can refer to the use of cannabis and its cannabinoids to treat disease or improve symptoms; however, there is no single agreed-upon definition.[39][40] The rigorous scientific study of cannabis as a medicine has been hampered by production restrictions and other federal regulations.[41] There is limited evidence suggesting cannabis can be used to reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, to improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS, and to treat chronic pain and muscle spasms.[42][43][44] Its use for other medical applications is insufficient for conclusions about safety or efficacy.

Results of a Phase III study (N = 177) comparing Sativex, THC-predominant extract and placebo in intractable pain due to cancer unresponsive to opiates (Johnson and Potts 2005) demonstrated that Sativex produced highly statistically significant improvements in analgesia (Table 1), while the THC-predominant extract failed to produce statistical demarcation from placebo, suggesting the presence of CBD in the Sativex preparation was crucial to attain significant pain relief.
Given its name, you might assume THCV shares psychoactive powers with its potent counterpart, THC. In reality, this cannabinoid is more like a cross between CBD and THC. From the former, it takes its modulating powers. Acting like THC “lite,” THCV like CBD can dampen the effects of a strong high. Yet at higher doses, THCV kicks into a psychoactive stimulant in its own right.

While there are more unknowns than knowns at this point, Grant says he doesn’t discount all the anecdotal CBD reports. “You hear somebody say, ‘Hey, I gave this to myself and my kid and we feel a lot better,’ and we should never dismiss that kind of information,” he says. He points out that many modern medicines were discovered when researchers followed up on exactly this sort of human trial-and-error evidence. “But we still need to do the studies that confirm whether all the good things are true, and how much to give, and how to give it,” he says. “These are all questions that need to be answered.”


Does anybody know about cbd vs thc for chronic exhaustion? There are times that I can barely get out of bed and can’t do work due to it, and it has gotten my mood swings to go over the roof! I don’t have much interest in doing just thc because it makes me feel more lethargic, but cbd has seem to be able to help me! I need to know if someone has used it for this problem, and is results
Both in Canada and the US, the most critical problem to be addressed for commercial exploitation of C. sativa is the possible unauthorized drug use of the plant. Indeed, the reason hemp cultivation was made illegal in North America was concern that the hemp crop was a drug menace. The drug potential is, for practical purposes, measured by the presence of THC. THC is the world’s most popular illicit chemical, and indeed the fourth most popular recreational drug, after caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine. “Industrial hemp” is a phrase that has become common to designate hemp used for commercial non-intoxicant purposes. Small and Cronquist (1976) split C. sativa into two subspecies: C. sativa subsp. sativa, with less than 0.3% (dry weight) of THC in the upper (reproductive) part of the plant, and C. sativa subsp. indica (Lam.) E. Small & Cronq. with more than 0.3% THC. This classification has since been adopted in the European Community, Canada, and parts of Australia as a dividing line between cultivars that can be legally cultivated under license and forms that are considered to have too high a drug potential. For a period, 0.3% was also the allowable THC content limit for cultivation of hemp in the Soviet Union. In the US, Drug Enforcement Agency guidelines issued Dec. 7, 1999 expressly allowed products with a THC content of less than 0.3% to enter the US without a license; but subsequently permissible levels have been a source of continuing contention. Marijuana in the illicit market typically has a THC content of 5% to 10% (levels as high as 25% have been reported), and as a point of interest, a current Canadian government experimental medicinal marijuana production contract calls for the production of 6% marijuana. As noted above, a level of about 1% THC is considered the threshold for marijuana to have intoxicating potential, so the 0.3% level is conservative, and some countries (e.g. parts of Australia, Switzerland) have permitted the cultivation of cultivars with higher levels. It should be appreciated that there is considerable variation in THC content in different parts of the plant. THC content increases in the following order: achenes (excluding bracts), roots, large stems, smaller stems, older and larger leaves, younger and smaller leaves, flowers, perigonal bracts covering both the female flowers and fruits. It is well known in the illicit trade how to screen off the more potent fractions of the plant in order to increase THC levels in resultant drug products. Nevertheless, a level of 0.3% THC in the flowering parts of the plant is reflective of material that is too low in intoxicant potential to actually be used practically for illicit production of marijuana or other types of cannabis drugs. Below, the problem of permissible levels of THC in food products made from hempseed is discussed.
C.S. Lewis said “badness is only spoiled goodness.” This may be an apt quote regarding public perception. It’s true that hemp’s scientific name is the same as that other Cannabis sativa, marijuana, but its constituents are different. The three cannabis plants have three different species: Sativa, used for industrial fibers, oils, food, drugs and medicine; Indica, to induce sleep; and Ruderalis, for food production. Hemp seeds contain high amounts of essential fatty acids – more than any fish and most fish oil supplements. The oil has linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and at least 20 amino acids. Altogether, hemp supplies innumerable health benefits. After decades of misunderstanding, scientists have again been tapping the amazing potential of this versatile plant.

The health consequences of cannabis use in developing countries are largely unknown beacuse of limited and non-systematic research, but there is no reason a priori to expect that biological effects on individuals in these populations would be substantially different to what has been observed in developed countries. However, other consequences might be different given the cultural and social differences between countries.
While normally I'd be slightly tripped up by little things like an overly crowded subway car or a full inbox at work, the CBD oil seems to have taken the edge off of my anxiety a bit. Rather than overthinking a sternly worded email or analyzing a social interaction, I've found it easier to recognize the irrationality of these thoughts and actually let them go (instead of ruminating on the situation). In some ways, I feel more like myself. With that said, I've still experienced some social anxiety when meeting new groups of people—I'd be interested to see what taking the full recommended dose would do.
There is also considerable potential for other industries using hemp in the manner that the automobile industry has demonstrated is feasible. Of course, all other types of transportation vehicles from bicycles to airplanes might make use of such technology. Natural fibers have considerable advantages for use in conveyance (Karus et al. 2000): low density and weight reduction, favorable mechanical, acoustical, and processing properties (including low wear on tools), no splintering in accidents, occupational health benefits (compared to glass fibers), no off-gassing of toxic compounds, and price advantages. Additional types of composite using hemp in combination with other natural fibers, post-industrial plastics or other types of resins, are being used to produce non-woven matting for padding, sound insulation, and other applications.
I recently was a guest at a medical marijuana educational event that highlighted the work of researcher Michael Backes. During his presentation he made a statement about CBD that I have never heard anywhere else that CBD is “regulating” (my word) the effects of THC. I asked the Nurse Practitioner at the event, Ivy Lou Hibbitt of Certicann.com, what he meant by that and she said it was her understanding of Michael’s comment that he takes CBD to reduce the psychoactive effects of THC. Has this property of CBD, that it can lessen psychoactive effects, ever been researched elsewhere?
I always tell beginners for CBD use to use full-spectrum. The full-spectrum oils contain a lot of terpenes and other good stuff along with CBD and help much more when you suffer from anxiety attacks. CBDistillery also has a wide range of potencies to choose from. Unlike, FabCBD, which offers only limited capacities, CBDistillery’s oils go up to 5000mg per bottle and it is indeed one of the best CBD oils for pain in the market
It is often claimed by growers and breeders of herbal cannabis that advances in breeding and cultivation techniques have increased the potency of cannabis since the late 1960s and early '70s when THC was first discovered and understood. However, potent seedless cannabis such as "Thai sticks" were already available at that time. Sinsemilla (Spanish for "without seed") is the dried, seedless inflorescences of female cannabis plants. Because THC production drops off once pollination occurs, the male plants (which produce little THC themselves) are eliminated before they shed pollen to prevent pollination. Advanced cultivation techniques such as hydroponics, cloning, high-intensity artificial lighting, and the sea of green method are frequently employed as a response (in part) to prohibition enforcement efforts that make outdoor cultivation more risky. It is often cited that the average levels of THC in cannabis sold in the United States rose dramatically between the 1970s and 2000, but such statements are likely skewed because undue weight is given to much more expensive and potent, but less prevalent samples.[253]
A 2012 study reported that, “systemic and intrathecal administration of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychoactive component of marijuana, and its modified derivatives significantly suppress chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain without causing apparent analgesic tolerance…These cannabinoids may represent a novel class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of chronic pain and other diseases…”

With so many companies popping up every day, we’ve done the hard work for you. We bring you the best CBD oil guide and the top 25 brands that made our list based on CBD oil quality, effectiveness, customer service and of course price. Please note, this article is updated constantly, so don’t forget come back from time to time to see the most updated information.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Boggs, Douglas L; Nguyen, Jacques D; Morgenson, Daralyn; Taffe, Michael A; Ranganathan, Mohini (6 September 2017). "Clinical and preclinical evidence for functional interactions of cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol". Neuropsychopharmacology. 43 (1): 142–154. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.209. ISSN 0893-133X. PMC 5719112. PMID 28875990.
However, the industry is evolving and it’s time that cannabis-based journalism evolves alongside it. What the industry needs now are in-depth reporting about challenges the marijuana market faces. Objective analysis about studies and medical implications of using marijuana. We need to have detailed accounts of the culture, economy, health, and safety of cannabis on a global scale.
However, like we just mentioned CBD oil for pain management that has been sourced from industrial hemp grown under the farm bill is in fact legal to buy and sell. The best CBD oil brands that we cover here on this site, claim to extract their concentrates from U.S.-based industrial hemp supplies, which if true, are 100% legal since they contain negligible amounts of THC.

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Berenson thinks that we are far too sanguine about this link. He wonders how large the risk is, and what might be behind it. In one of the most fascinating sections of “Tell Your Children,” he sits down with Erik Messamore, a psychiatrist who specializes in neuropharmacology and in the treatment of schizophrenia. Messamore reports that, following the recent rise in marijuana use in the U.S. (it has almost doubled in the past two decades, not necessarily as the result of legal reforms), he has begun to see a new kind of patient: older, and not from the marginalized communities that his patients usually come from. These are otherwise stable middle-class professionals. Berenson writes, “A surprising number of them seemed to have used only cannabis and no other drugs before their breaks. The disease they’d developed looked like schizophrenia, but it had developed later—and their prognosis seemed to be worse. Their delusions and paranoia hardly responded to antipsychotics.”
A 2008 study found, “that a controlled cannabis extract, containing multiple cannabinoids, in a defined ratio, and other non-cannabinoid fractions (terpenes and flavonoids) provided better antinociceptive efficacy than the single cannabinoid given alone…” This is why the use of full-spectrum CBD oil is more effective in treating pain than taking CBD isolate alone – you want the beneficial terpenes and flavonoids contained in the plant.
A 2015 review found that the use of high CBD-to-THC strains of cannabis showed significantly fewer positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations, better cognitive function and both lower risk for developing psychosis, as well as a later age of onset of the illness, compared to cannabis with low CBD-to-THC ratios.[279] A 2014 Cochrane review found that research was insufficient to determine the safety and efficacy to using cannabis to treat schizophrenia or psychosis.[280] As of 2017, the molecular mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory and possible pain relieving effects of cannabis are under preliminary research.[281]

^ Jump up to: a b Resstel LB, Tavares RF, Lisboa SF, Joca SR, Corrêa FM, Guimarães FS (January 2009). "5-HT1A receptors are involved in the cannabidiol-induced attenuation of behavioural and cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats". British Journal of Pharmacology. 156 (1): 181–8. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2008.00046.x. PMC 2697769. PMID 19133999.
"Both hemp and marijuana also have separate definitions in statute. While marijuana is defined in U.S. drug laws, Congress established a statutory definition for industrial hemp as “the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of such plant, whether growing or not, with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis” as part of the 2014 farm bill.4 Hemp is generally characterized by plants that are low in delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9 THC), the dominant psychotrophic ingredient in Cannabis sativa.5

Given its name, you might assume THCV shares psychoactive powers with its potent counterpart, THC. In reality, this cannabinoid is more like a cross between CBD and THC. From the former, it takes its modulating powers. Acting like THC “lite,” THCV like CBD can dampen the effects of a strong high. Yet at higher doses, THCV kicks into a psychoactive stimulant in its own right.
Quality is a particular concern, because cannabis plants easily soak up heavy metals from pesticides and other contaminants, Marcu says. If you are buying online, look for a company that documents how it tests its products. (If the website doesn’t indicate this, call and ask.) “Buying from a reputable manufacturer is crucial, because it matters how the plant is cultivated and processed,” Dr. Maroon says. One clue that a company is cutting corners: too low a cost. Good CBD is pricey—a bottle of high-quality capsules is sold in Cohen’s office for $140. But for many, it’s worth the money. Roth spent $60 on her tiny bottle. But when her energy returned the day she started taking CBD, she decided that was a small price to pay.

In a Phase II double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 5-week study of 56 rheumatoid arthritis patients with Sativex (Blake et al 2006), employed nocturnal treatment only to a maximum of 6 sprays per evening (16.2 mg THC + 15 mg CBD). In the final treatment week, morning pain on movement, morning pain at rest, DAS-28 measure of disease activity, and SF-MPQ pain at present all favored Sativex over placebo (Table 1).

Cannabis use and psychotic symptoms and disorders are associated in the general population (see, for example, Degenhardt and Hall, 2001; Tien and Anthony, 1990) and in clinical samples of patients with schizophrenia (Mueser et al., 1992; Warner et al., 1994; Hambrecht and Hafner, 1996). The major contending hypotheses to explain the association have been: (i) that cannabis use precipitates schizophrenia in persons who are otherwise vulnerable; (ii) cannabis use is a form of self-medication for schizophrenia; and (iii) that the association arises from uncontrolled residual confounding by variables that predict an increased risk of cannabis use and of schizophrenia (Macleod et al., 2004).
Hemp hasn't always been on the wrong side of the authorities. The Puritans brought hemp with them to New England in 1645 and Europeans were growing it even earlier in Chile. George Washington planted hemp as one of several crops at his Mount Vernon estate. However, hemp's popularity waned in America as other plants used for textiles such as cotton and jute became more widely available. The U.S. Navy briefly campaigned for more hemp farming during World War II to supply ropes for ships. But the federal government continued restrictions on hemp after the war.

Did you get an answer for this? I have the exact same scenario. I'm treating my TN with Tegretol, and recently tried CBD. I think I took too much and there are some weird drug interactions with Tegretol and I felt quite stoned....was alone and talking to myself in my head thinking I was Einstein. It freaked me out a bit but I think I took too much. I'm trying lower doses again as recently my TN seems to be resisting the meds, although I have had a lot of emotional stress, which seems to be a trigger. Thanks!! Anna


Marijuana is the most popular illicit drug in the world, for no reason other than the fact that it produces a psychoactive chemical called tetrahydrocannabinol. Still, recreational marijuana use, which involves pursuing the euphoric sensations produced by cannabis consumption, is steadily becoming more and more legal, both in the United States and abroad.
Many teens suffer from mental health issues in response to the pressures of society and social problems they encounter. Some of the key mental health issues seen in teens are: depression, eating disorders, and drug abuse. There are many ways to prevent these health issues from occurring such as communicating well with a teen suffering from mental health issues. Mental health can be treated and be attentive to teens' behavior.[39]
I have a brother in law who has been diagnosed with cataplexy and narcoplexy, where he starts quivering and slowly loses control of his body and goes into a sleep, which causes him to drop to the ground with mild seizures while he is out. He lives alone (59 years old), but has smoked cannabis since he (we) were teenagers. He still smokes, and is on medication twice a day for this condition, but if he misses those meds by even half an hour, he is at risk of these seizures. The sad part is, these seizures are usually brought on by the smallest emotional change, usually tension, excitement or, the worst thing, if something he finds funny and is the least bit tickled about and starts to laugh, this process will immediately begin. Does anyone know if this kind of condition is treatable with cbd oil’s or concentrates? As I said, he smokes weed, and often grows his own, but he does it for the high and relaxation advantage, since he is basically home-bound due to this condition ending his work career about 4 years ago. Thanks for any replies. I’d be overjoyed if I could tell him there’s a possible solution to the problem other than his prescriptions. Or even if it worked WITH his meds to keep from having to live such a sedentary life.
An increasing number of studies and reports from different organizations and contexts examine the linkages between health and different factors, including lifestyles, environments, health care organization and health policy, one specific health policy brought into many countries in recent years was the introduction of the sugar tax. Beverage taxes came into light with increasing concerns about obesity, particularly among youth. Sugar-sweetened beverages have become a target of anti-obesity initiatives with increasing evidence of their link to obesity.[21]– such as the 1974 Lalonde report from Canada;[20] the Alameda County Study in California;[22] and the series of World Health Reports of the World Health Organization, which focuses on global health issues including access to health care and improving public health outcomes, especially in developing countries.[23]
Our bodies contain two types of cannabinoid receptors that are aptly namely, cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2). CB1 receptors are found mostly in the brain. The CB2 receptors, on the other hand, are located throughout the body and play a significant role our immune systems, regulating pain and inflammation. In fact, nearly every type of human disease, including pain-related illnesses, involve some sort of change in CB2 function.

In 1988, the first cannabinoid receptor was identified (CB1) (Howlett et al 1988) and in 1993, a second was described (CB2) (Munro et al 1993). Both are 7-domain G-protein coupled receptors affecting cyclic-AMP, but CB1 is more pervasive throughout the body, with particular predilection to nociceptive areas of the central nervous system and spinal cord (Herkenham et al 1990; Hohmann et al 1999), as well as the peripheral nervous system (Fox et al 2001; Dogrul et al 2003) wherein synergy of activity between peripheral and central cannabinoid receptor function has been demonstrated (Dogrul et al 2003). CB2, while commonly reported as confined to lymphoid and immune tissues, is also proving to be an important mediator for suppressing both pain and inflammatory processes (Mackie 2006). Following the description of cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands for these were discovered: anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide, AEA) in 1992 in porcine brain (Devane et al 1992), and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) in 1995 in canine gut tissue (Mechoulam et al 1995) (Figure 1). These endocannabinoids both act as retrograde messengers on G-protein coupled receptors, are synthesized on demand, and are especially active on glutamatergic and GABA-ergic synapses. Together, the cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands (“endocannabinoids”) and metabolizing enzymes comprise the endocannabinoid system (ECS) (Di Marzo et al 1998), whose functions have been prosaically termed to be “relax, eat, sleep, forget and protect” (p. 528). The endocannabinoid system parallels and interacts at many points with the other major endogenous pain control systems: endorphin/enkephalin, vanilloid/transient receptor potential (TRPV), and inflammatory. Interestingly, our first knowledge of each pain system has derived from investigation of natural origin analgesic plants, respectively: cannabis (Cannabis sativa, C. indica) (THC, CBD and others), opium poppy (Papaver somniferun) (morphine, codeine), chile peppers (eg, Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense) (capsaicin) and willow bark (Salix spp.) (salicylic acid, leading to acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin). Interestingly, THC along with AEA and 2-AG, are all partial agonists at the CB1 receptor. Notably, no endocannabinoid has ever been administered to humans, possibly due to issues of patentability and lack of commercial feasibility (Raphael Mechoulam, pers comm 2007). For an excellent comprehensive review of the endocannabinoid system, see Pacher et al (2006), while Walker and Huang have provided a key review of antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids in models of acute and persistent pain (Walker and Huang 2002).


Activities such as lifting heavy objects at work, being always on your feet, or doing yard work on the weekends can all put strain and duress on your joints. When you continuously put pressure on your joints, it can hinder and even damage your joint movement. With Hemp Bombs’ CBD Pain Freeze, we provide you with an applicable solution designed to deter joint pain and help improve your day to day mobility.
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 116 people died every-day from opioid-related drug overdoses in 2016. Forty percent of these deaths involved a prescription opioid and in 2017, the government declared the opioid crisis a public health emergency. Opioids are typically prescribed by health care providers as a way to manage and treat pain. But what if there was a better solution?
A non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis. After tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) is the second-most abundant cannabinoid in the plant, and has many potential therapeutic benefits, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-anxiety and seizure-suppressant properties. Cannabidiol can be sourced from both marijuana plants and hemp plants, which are legal in most countries as they contain minor amounts of THC.  

Some CBD oil brands can be evasive when it comes to product testing details. Populum addresses this by including a hard copy of the oil’s lab testing results in the product packaging. Full lab results are easily accessible on the brand’s website, as well. Prices for the Populum CBD oil range from 18 to 24 cents per milligram, depending on the container size, making it a relatively inexpensive full spectrum product. All U.S. military veterans receive a 25% discount, as well. Populum offers a risk-free 30-night product trial.
The anti-inflammatory contributions of THC are also extensive, including inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis (Burstein et al 1973), decreased platelet aggregation (Schaefer et al 1979), and stimulation of lipooxygenase (Fimiani et al 1999). THC has twenty times the anti-inflammatory potency of aspirin and twice that of hydrocortisone (Evans 1991), but in contrast to all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), demonstrates no cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibition at physiological concentrations (Stott et al 2005a).
In a SAFEX study of Phase III double-blind RCT in 160 subjects with various symptoms of MS (Wade et al 2004), 137 patients elected to continue on Sativex after the initial study (Wade et al 2006). Rapid declines were noted in the first twelve weeks in pain VAS (N = 47) with slower sustained improvements for more than one year. During that time, there was no escalation of dose indicating an absence of tolerance to the preparation. Similarly, no withdrawal effects were noted in a subset of patients who voluntarily stopped the medicine abruptly. Upon resumption, benefits resumed at the prior established dosages.
We need proper studies, the panel concluded, on the health effects of cannabis on children and teen-agers and pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers and “older populations” and “heavy cannabis users”; in other words, on everyone except the college student who smokes a joint once a month. The panel also called for investigation into “the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of cannabis, modes of delivery, different concentrations, in various populations, including the dose-response relationships of cannabis and THC or other cannabinoids.”
There are a few things that are better about CBD Pain Cream than taking prescriptions. First of all, prescriptions can take a while to kick in. So, if you’re in pain in the morning, it can be almost impossible to get out of bed. On the other hand, CBD Chiro-Cream can work in as little as five minutes’ post-application. † So, you can get on with your day when you use this product. The magic of CBD Pain Cream is that it helps calm your body’s pain receptors. Every single person has an endocannabinoid system (ECS) that is responsible for telling your brain when you’re in pain, anxious, or uncomfortable.
The woody core (hurds, sometimes called shives) of hemp makes remarkably good animal bedding (Fig. 28, 29). The hurds are sometimes molded into small pellets for bedding applications (Fig. 30). Such appears to be unsurpassed for horse bedding, and also make an excellent litter for cats and other pets (Fig. 31). The hurds can absorb up to five times their weight in moisture (typically 50% higher than wood shavings), do not produce dust (following initial dust removal), and are easily composted. Hemp bedding is especially suited to horses allergic to straw. In Europe, the animal bedding market is not considered important (Karus et al. 2000), but in North America there are insufficient hemp hurds available to meet market demand.
Cannabis use is associated with increased recruitment of task-related areas, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is thought to reflect compensatory activity due to reduced processing efficiency.[114][113][116] Cannabis use is also associated with downregulation of CB1 receptors. The magnitude of down regulation is associated with cumulative cannabis exposure, and is reversed after one month of abstinence.[117][118][119] There is limited evidence that chronic cannabis use can reduce levels of glutamate metabolites in the human brain.[120]
"There is little information about DEA’s permit process and on facilities that are licensed to grow hemp, even for research purposes. Previously reports indicated that DEA had issued a permit for an experimental quarter-acre plot at the Hawaii Industrial Hemp Research Program during the period from 1999 to 2003 (now expired).69 Most reports indicate that DEA continues to be reluctant to grant licenses to grow hemp, even for research purposes.70 Recent indications are that some land grant university researchers may have been granted licenses to conduct hemp research under certain conditions.71
I am a former family doctor and naturopathic physician as well as a medical editor and author, working mostly in academic research. In my practice I have always focused on natural medicine and helped my patients of all ages who haven’t responded to traditional treatments. I also have written a significant number of articles in botanical medicine, addiction, drugs. As of now I'm focused on cannabis researches, especially on cannabidiol, its health benefits and how it can improve life of people with severe diseases. You can read my articles here on CBDreamers
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