However, because no tools existed for quality control, it was impossible to prepare a standardized medicine, so patients often received a dose that was either too low, having no effect, or too high, resulting in serious side effects. Moreover, Cannabis extract was not water-soluble and therefore could not be injected (in contrast to, e.g., the opiates), whereas oral administration was found to be unreliable because of its slow and erratic absorption. Because of such drawbacks, the medicinal use of Cannabis increasingly disappeared in the beginning of the twentieth century, and in 1937 Cannabis was removed from the US pharmacopoeia, a move that was followed by most other Western countries.27 Isolation and structure elucidation of the first pure active substances from Cannabis was not achieved until the 1960s.29


When privacy isn’t a requirement, outdoor cannabis grows can provide many advantages over indoor operations. Sunlight is the single most important factor for successful outdoor marijuana growing. It’s important to choose a plot with total sunshine throughout the day. Therefore, cannabis growers in the northern hemisphere will want plots with southern exposure, exposing marijuana plants to the sun’s arc across the sky.
Thirty minutes later, I was surprised by how subtle the effect was. While I expected a hazy nodding-off effect similar to melatonin's, the oil simply relaxed my body ever so slightly—my heart stopped pounding against my chest, my legs stopped kicking beneath my sheets, my mind stopped racing. I wasn't sure if it was the oil or the late hour, but eventually, physical relaxation gave way to mental relaxation, and I drifted off to sleep.
Cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are two compounds found within the cannabis plant that are showing promise as pain relievers. And as the legalization of cannabis continues to spread, and as researchers continue to study the plant’s therapeutic potential, the stigma will continue to disappear. The number of people using CBD for pain relief is on the rise, showing that cannabis, and the cannabinoids it produces, can do so much more than produce an intoxicating high, it can actually help heal.
In states with medical cannabis laws, consumers should try to purchase cannabis from licensed suppliers who share their test results, which hopefully validate their products’ robust cannabinoid and terpenoid profiles. If you’re looking to purchase hemp through an online outlet, research your purchase beforehand to ensure that you aren’t being duped.
There's no question that CBD is the buzzy wellness product of the moment. If you live in a state where it's currently legal, you might feel like CBD has gone from being sort of around to absolutely everywhere all at once. Coffee shops sell CBD lattes, spas offer CBD facials, beauty companies are rushing to release lotions with CBD or hemp oils in their formulas. And everyone from your anxious coworker to your arthritis-suffering dad wants to get their hands on some CBD gummies.
"Skin dryness and itchiness, in particular, are very serious problems in atopic dermatitis, which often lead to additional complications, such as opportunistic infections. In any event, it seems that the reduction of atopic symptomology observed in this study is a direct result of ingested hempseed oil. These preliminary results confirm anecdotal observations of improved skin quality after ingesting modest amounts of hempseed oil on a daily basis over a relatively short period of time."
Messamore theorizes that THC may interfere with the brain’s anti-inflammatory mechanisms, resulting in damage to nerve cells and blood vessels. Is this the reason, Berenson wonders, for the rising incidence of schizophrenia in the developed world, where cannabis use has also increased? In the northern parts of Finland, incidence of the disease has nearly doubled since 1993. In Denmark, cases have risen twenty-five per cent since 2000. In the United States, hospital emergency rooms have seen a fifty-per-cent increase in schizophrenia admissions since 2006. If you include cases where schizophrenia was a secondary diagnosis, annual admissions in the past decade have increased from 1.26 million to 2.1 million.
Yes, and no. Hemp itself is an A+plus source of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. In fact, it has the 3:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 that research shows is optimal for health. One of those omega-6s is GLA, or gamma linolenic acid, an anti-inflammatory. That's why hemp-based food products, like hemp hearts and hemp milk, are gaining reps as legit superfoods.

Cannabis made another leap forward in 1964 when Israeli scientist Dr. Raphael Mechoulam identified the structure of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. This discovery earned him godfather status of modern cannabis. This particular discovery allowed science to understand THC’s nature as a psychoactive compound in cannabis as well as CBD’s non-intoxicating but vastly therapeutic benefits.
"In recent years, U.S. producers have begun to grow hemp under state law (Table 2). Some are foregoing the requirement to obtain a federal permit. For example, in 2009, Montana’s Agriculture Department issued its first state license for an industrial hemp-growing operation in the state, and media reports indicated that the grower did not intend to request a federal permit.72 Such cases continue to pose a challenge to DEA of whether it is willing to override the state’s authority to allow for hemp production in the state. It is also a test of states’ rights."
Hi, I had ovarian cancer stage 2 and went to do chemotherapy for 16 times in 2014. It came back last year 2016 but I did not do chemotherapy or radiation therapy as suggested by the doctor. I am taking hormone therapy at the moment. I would like to use cannabis oil but which one and how much CBD and how much THC should I take for ovarian cancer? Can anyone give some idea?. Thank you very much.
The US Office of National Drug control Policy issued a statement on industrial hemp in 1997 (www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/policy/hemp%5Fold.html) which included the following: “Our primary concern about the legalization of the cultivation of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is the message it would send to the public at large, especially to our youth at a time when adolescent drug use is rising rapidly... The second major concern is that legalizing hemp production may mean the de facto legalization of marijuana cultivation. Industrial hemp and marijuana are the product of the same plant, Cannabis sativa... Supporters of the hemp legalization effort claim hemp cultivation could be profitable for US farmers. However, according to the USDA and the US Department of Commerce, the profitability of industrial hemp is highly uncertain and probably unlikely. Hemp is a novelty product with limited sustainable development value even in a novelty market... For every proposed use of industrial hemp, there already exists an available product, or raw material, which is cheaper to manufacture and provides better market results.... Countries with low labor costs such as the Philippines and China have a competitive advantage over any US hemp producer.”
Our bodies contain two types of cannabinoid receptors that are aptly namely, cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2). CB1 receptors are found mostly in the brain. The CB2 receptors, on the other hand, are located throughout the body and play a significant role our immune systems, regulating pain and inflammation. In fact, nearly every type of human disease, including pain-related illnesses, involve some sort of change in CB2 function.
While marijuana cultivation requires ample spacing to reduce the risk of mold or bacteria, hemp can be planted more densely. Most marijuana crops are planted at one (1) plant per four (4) square feet. Hemp plants that are grown for hemp oil are planted at roughly 40 to 60 plants per four (4) square feet. Hemp plants grown for fiber are even more densely planted at a rate of about 100 to 120 plants per four (4) square feet.
My Wife had Polio at age 5 and the lingering damage to the L leg and muscle drove her crazy. At age 21 she was using heavy doses of muscle relaxers and pain meds. Needed to bomb herself at night to get some sleep. A Post polio group in West Palm Beach told her about Marijuana and she got some from the Jamaican health aide that was her constant helper. After 5 months she quit all meds. All of them. Slowly came out of the drugged state the meds had caused from 15 years of use. We separated good friends and I know she has gone back to school and getting a degree. All from the help of a plant from Jamaica. I never understood the statement this plant has no viable medical value. Something smells in the politics of this prohibition. Shame.
I’ve done a little research on the hemp and cannabis, and it looks to me like they’re both supposed to be medicine plants. From what I learned about the plants, they’ve been known to actually have multiple health benefits and even save lives of fourth stage cancer patients, sending the cancer into remission and therefore saving the patient lives. Banning this medicine plant has actually caused the deaths of many people who could have otherwise been saved by this plant. No wonder people are getting it other ways, I don’t blame them as long as it’s strictly for medical purposes. I even heard of a case where one child’s seizures were so bad they had to end up moving to Colorado as a last resort to save that little girl’s life by giving her cannabis because no other medicine worked for her.

I have a brother in law who has been diagnosed with cataplexy and narcoplexy, where he starts quivering and slowly loses control of his body and goes into a sleep, which causes him to drop to the ground with mild seizures while he is out. He lives alone (59 years old), but has smoked cannabis since he (we) were teenagers. He still smokes, and is on medication twice a day for this condition, but if he misses those meds by even half an hour, he is at risk of these seizures. The sad part is, these seizures are usually brought on by the smallest emotional change, usually tension, excitement or, the worst thing, if something he finds funny and is the least bit tickled about and starts to laugh, this process will immediately begin. Does anyone know if this kind of condition is treatable with cbd oil’s or concentrates? As I said, he smokes weed, and often grows his own, but he does it for the high and relaxation advantage, since he is basically home-bound due to this condition ending his work career about 4 years ago. Thanks for any replies. I’d be overjoyed if I could tell him there’s a possible solution to the problem other than his prescriptions. Or even if it worked WITH his meds to keep from having to live such a sedentary life.
Many governments view occupational health as a social challenge and have formed public organizations to ensure the health and safety of workers. Examples of these include the British Health and Safety Executive and in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, which conducts research on occupational health and safety, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which handles regulation and policy relating to worker safety and health.[63][64][65]
"Results of the hemp products tested indicate the amount of THC present in commercially available products is significantly less in products available today than those reported in the past (15-22). As a result, the probability that these products will produce urine THC metabolite levels greater than the DoD and HHS confirmation cutoff of 15 ng/mL is significantly reduced and should not be considered as a realistic cause for a positive urine analysis result."
Thank you. I am 81 and started the CBD drops night and morning. I sleep better and no longer suffer the excruciating pain from diverticulitis. I saw somewhere that for my asthma I need the THC so got some (totally illegal here in South Africa). I think it is helping. The diagnosis of COPD was made some years ago and as a health psychologist I do all I can to remain healthy for my 97th birthday!! (Both my grandmother and greatgrandmother did so I believe I will too). 

The dosages mentioned do not take into account the strength of the tincture. I have Elixinol 300, I took 1/2 dropper (0.5ml, which offers 5mg of CBD) as indicated on the bottle and felt severely nauseous for 3 hours thereafter. There is no way I cold take this dose twice per day, as recommended on the bottle. The high dosages on this site must surely be for much weaker concentrations?
Some users speculate about appropriate dosages or methods of application—including whether or not a small amount of THC boosts CBD’s effects, or whether different methods of administration lead to quicker or more significant effects. Some CBD producers also claim that it has a cumulative effect, and so needs to be used regularly to produce a benefit. But Grant says it’s tough to say at this point exactly how people should (or shouldn’t) be using CBD.
Debate continues with regard to the relationship between cannabis usage and schizophrenia (reviewed (Fride and Russo 2006)). An etiological relationship is not supported by epidemiological data (Degenhardt et al 2003), but if present, should bear relation to dose and length of high exposure. It is likely that lower serum levels of Sativex in therapeutic usage, in conjunction with anti-psychotic properties of CBD (Zuardi and Guimaraes 1997), would minimize risks. Children and adolescents have been excluded from Sativex RCTs to date. SAFEX studies of Sativex have yielded few incidents of thought disorder, paranoia or related complaints.
The US Office of National Drug control Policy issued a statement on industrial hemp in 1997 (www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/policy/hemp%5Fold.html) which included the following: “Our primary concern about the legalization of the cultivation of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is the message it would send to the public at large, especially to our youth at a time when adolescent drug use is rising rapidly... The second major concern is that legalizing hemp production may mean the de facto legalization of marijuana cultivation. Industrial hemp and marijuana are the product of the same plant, Cannabis sativa... Supporters of the hemp legalization effort claim hemp cultivation could be profitable for US farmers. However, according to the USDA and the US Department of Commerce, the profitability of industrial hemp is highly uncertain and probably unlikely. Hemp is a novelty product with limited sustainable development value even in a novelty market... For every proposed use of industrial hemp, there already exists an available product, or raw material, which is cheaper to manufacture and provides better market results.... Countries with low labor costs such as the Philippines and China have a competitive advantage over any US hemp producer.”
A 2008 study found, “that a controlled cannabis extract, containing multiple cannabinoids, in a defined ratio, and other non-cannabinoid fractions (terpenes and flavonoids) provided better antinociceptive efficacy than the single cannabinoid given alone…” This is why the use of full-spectrum CBD oil is more effective in treating pain than taking CBD isolate alone – you want the beneficial terpenes and flavonoids contained in the plant.

Omega-3 and omega-6s have been shown to help treat conditions like atopic dermatitis (a.k.a. eczema), which can leave your skin dry and itchy. GLA in particular has been shown to improve dry skin and eczema. One 2005 study even found people who consumed hempseed oil for 20 weeks had a reduction in oil and reduced the symptoms and appearance of eczema after 20 weeks. But that research is preliminary, Tishler points out.


“Essentially CBD is no different whether extracted from industrial hemp or from marijuana,” Lee explained. “What’s different is what else is in there. When you extract from industrial hemp, you’re not getting a lot of cannabinoids. You’re not getting much CBD. You’re getting very, very little THC. Because it’s a low-resin plant, you don’t have a lot of cannabinoids that are contained in the resin.”

Hemp seeds contain virtually no THC, but THC contamination results from contact of the seeds with the resin secreted by the epidermal glands on the leaves and floral parts, and also by the failure to sift away all of the bracts (which have the highest concentration of THC of any parts of the plant) that cover the seeds. This results in small levels of THC appearing in hempseed oil and foods made with the seeds. Although most of the western hemp-growing world uses 0.3% THC as a maximum concentration for authorized cultivation of hemp plants, regulations in various countries allow only a much lower level of THC in human food products manufactured from the seeds. Currently, up to 10 ppm THC is permitted in seeds and oil products used for food purposes in Canada. In Germany, more stringent limits were set for food in 2000: 5 ppm in food oil, 0.005 ppm in beverages, and 0.15 ppm in all other foods. The US Drug Enforcement Administration published new regulations on hemp in the Federal Register on October 9th 2001 that in effect 4 months later would ban the food use of hemp in the US because any amount of THC would be unacceptable in foods (follow links at www.hempreport.com/). These proposals are currently being challenged by the hemp industry. Limits have been set because of concerns about possible toxicity and interference with drug tests (Grotenhermen et al. 1998). An extensive analysis of literature dealing with the toxicity of hemp is in Orr and Starodub (1999; see Geiwitz 2001 for an analysis). Because hemp food products are considered to have great economic potential, there is considerable pressure on the hemp industry in North America to reduce THC levels.


The Hemp Farming Act of 2018, part of the 2018 Farm Bill[106] signed by President Donald Trump December 20, 2018,[107] changed hemp from a controlled substance to an agricultural commodity, legalizing hemp federally, which made it easier for farmers to get production licenses, get loans to grow hemp, and allowed them to get federal crop insurance.[106]
Hemp isn’t completely absent of psychoactive compounds, but that doesn’t mean it will get you high. Hemp plants simply don’t produce enough THC to have an intoxicating effect. CBD, though psychoactive, is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid and won’t produce any form of a euphoric high on its own. In other words, hemp has plenty of therapeutic potential, but you’ll have to look elsewhere if you want to get high.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names,[a] is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant used for medical or recreational purposes.[16][17][18] The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of 483 known compounds in the plant,[19] including at least 65 other cannabinoids.[20] Cannabis can be used by smoking, vaporizing, within food, or as an extract.[21]

Overall, Sativex appears to pose less risk of dependency than smoked cannabis based on its slower onset, lower dosage utilized in therapy, almost total absence of intoxication in regular usage, and minimal withdrawal symptomatology even after chronic administration. No known abuse or diversion incidents have been reported with Sativex to date (as of November 2007). Sativex is expected to be placed in Schedule IV of the Misuse of Drugs Act in the United Kingdom once approved.


I have idiopathic peripheral neuropathy ... the only thing they found that would work is lyrica. I picked up some CBD oil yesterday morning. I am prescribed to take 75 mg of lyrica 3x per day. I took one yesterday morning and have only used the CBD oil since. I bought the Koi brand, flavored, 250 MG. I used a full dropper yesterday late morning and a full dropper yesterday late afternoon. I used it once today (one full dropper) and I am amazingly pain free.

"No data are available on imports of hemp seed and oil into the United States, but data do exist on hemp fiber, yarn, and fabrics. Imports of raw hemp fiber have increased dramatically in the last few years, rising from less than 500 pounds in 1994 to over 1.5 million pounds for the first 9 months of 1999. Yarn imports also have risen substantially, peaking at slightly less than 625,000 pounds in 1997. The switch from yarn to raw fiber in the last 2 years probably reflects the development of U.S. spinning capacity. At least two companies are now spinning hemp yarn from imported fibers. Imports of hemp fabric have more than doubled from over 222,000 pounds in 1995 to about 523,000 pounds in 1998.
To make matters more confusing, nine states (including California, Washington, and Colorado) let residents buy cannabis-based products with or without THC. Nearly two dozen other “medical marijuana states” allow the sale of cannabis, including capsules, tinctures, and other items containing CBD or THC, at licensed dispensaries to people whose doctors have certified that they have an approved condition (the list varies by state but includes chronic pain, PTSD, cancer, autism, Crohn’s disease, and multiple sclerosis). Sixteen more states legalized CBD for certain diseases. But because all these products are illegal according to the federal government, cannabis advocates are cautious. “By and large, the federal government is looking the other way,” says Paul Armentano, deputy director of the Washington, DC–based National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML), but until federal laws are changed, “this administration or a future one could crack down on people who produce, manufacture, or use CBD, and the law would be on its side.”
Overall, Sativex appears to pose less risk of dependency than smoked cannabis based on its slower onset, lower dosage utilized in therapy, almost total absence of intoxication in regular usage, and minimal withdrawal symptomatology even after chronic administration. No known abuse or diversion incidents have been reported with Sativex to date (as of November 2007). Sativex is expected to be placed in Schedule IV of the Misuse of Drugs Act in the United Kingdom once approved.
One of the most curious uses of hemp is as a fence to prevent pollen transfer in commercial production of seeds. Isolation distances for ensuring that seeds produced are pure are considerable for many plants, and often impractical. At one point in the 1980s, the only permitted use of hemp in Germany was as a fence or hedge to prevent plots of beets being used for seed production from being contaminated by pollen from ruderal beets. The high and rather inpenetrable hedge that hemp can produce was considered unsurpassed by any other species for the purpose. As well, the sticky leaves of hemp were thought to trap pollen. However, Saeglitz et al. (2000) demonstrated that the spread of beet pollen is not effectively prevented by hemp hedges. Fiber (i.e. tall) cultivars of hemp were also once used in Europe as wind-breaks, protecting vulnerable crops against wind damage. Although hemp plants can lodge, on the whole very tall hemp is remarkably resistant against wind.

Although CBD oils aren’t regulated by the FDA, purchasing products stateside from one of the nine states where recreational and medical cannabis use is legal will likely result in a higher-quality product than buying one made with hemp-derived CBD oil imported from abroad, says Martin Lee, director of Project CBD, a nonprofit that promotes medical research into CBD.
^ Crean RD, Crane NA, Mason BJ (March 2011). "An evidence based review of acute and long-term effects of cannabis use on executive cognitive functions". Journal of Addiction Medicine. 5 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1097/ADM.0b013e31820c23fa. PMC 3037578. PMID 21321675. Cannabis appears to continue to exert impairing effects in executive functions even after 3 weeks of abstinence and beyond. While basic attentional and working memory abilities are largely restored, the most enduring and detectable deficits are seen in decision-making, concept formation and planning.
PTSD. My husband suffers chronic PTSD from active military service. We live not far from a large Army base and though my husband served with another counties military we hear stories constantly of family breakdowns over PTSD. It’s not a easy path but I’m hoping one day to find something to stop the endless trips to the psych ward. It’s just not right that those who serve come home to no government help.
Given the uncertainties and handicaps associated with hemp, it is fortunate that there are compensating factors. As noted, as a crop hemp offers some real environmental advantages, particularly with regard to the limited needs for herbicides and pesticides. Hemp is therefore pre-adapted to organic agriculture, and accordingly to the growing market for products associated with environmentally-friendly, sustainable production. Hemp products are an advertiser’s dream, lending themselves to hyperbole (“healthiest salad oil in the world,” “toughest jeans on the market”). While the narcotics image of C. sativa is often disadvantageous, advertisers who choose to play up this association do so knowing that it will attract a segment of the consuming population. In general, the novelty of hemp means that many consumers are willing to pay a premium price. It might also be said that those who have entered the hemp industry have tended to be very highly motivated, resourceful, and industrious, qualities that have been needed in the face of rather formidable obstacles to progress.
We went back and forth like that for several rounds, yelling at each other in 30-degree weather in front of an RV wrapped in marijuana-leaf graphics and blasting Bob Marley music. Finally, he stopped trying to enlighten me and shuffled off to let me buy my lollies in peace. As I tore into my new treats, I realized the whole thing had been a scene from the internet’s dominant cannabidiol discourse come to life: Some money had been spent and some opinions had been said, but no one had gained any information.
To make matters more confusing, nine states (including California, Washington, and Colorado) let residents buy cannabis-based products with or without THC. Nearly two dozen other “medical marijuana states” allow the sale of cannabis, including capsules, tinctures, and other items containing CBD or THC, at licensed dispensaries to people whose doctors have certified that they have an approved condition (the list varies by state but includes chronic pain, PTSD, cancer, autism, Crohn’s disease, and multiple sclerosis). Sixteen more states legalized CBD for certain diseases. But because all these products are illegal according to the federal government, cannabis advocates are cautious. “By and large, the federal government is looking the other way,” says Paul Armentano, deputy director of the Washington, DC–based National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML), but until federal laws are changed, “this administration or a future one could crack down on people who produce, manufacture, or use CBD, and the law would be on its side.”
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