France is Europe's biggest producer (and the world's second largest producer) with 8,000 hectares (20,000 acres) cultivated.[85] 70–80% of the hemp fibre produced in 2003 was used for specialty pulp for cigarette papers and technical applications. About 15% was used in the automotive sector, and 5-6% was used for insulation mats. About 95% of hurds were used as animal bedding, while almost 5% was used in the building sector.[14] In 2010/2011, a total of 11,000 hectares (27,000 acres) was cultivated with hemp in the EU, a decline compared with previous year.[72][86]
It’s easy to see why vaping has become such a popular method for consuming marijuana. The method is remarkably discrete and produces none of the telltale “weed smells” that often betray cannabis users. Vape pens and other hand-held devices are portable and convenient. They’re free of many of the harsh marijuana plant compounds that can harm your lung health, like tars. And companies are getting better at crafting high-quality, flavorful vape cartridges with a wide array of cannabinoid profiles.
AC/DC: A Sativa-dominant phenotype of Cannatonic, this cultivar boasts one of the highest ratios of CBD to THC, clocking in at 20:1. AC/DC is claimed to help reduce pain, anxiety, depression and migraines while reducing symptoms in patients with epilepsy, some forms of cancer, and multiple sclerosis. This cultivar’s pinene-rich terpene profile offers potent clear-headed pain relief.
Cannabis use and psychotic symptoms and disorders are associated in the general population (see, for example, Degenhardt and Hall, 2001; Tien and Anthony, 1990) and in clinical samples of patients with schizophrenia (Mueser et al., 1992; Warner et al., 1994; Hambrecht and Hafner, 1996). The major contending hypotheses to explain the association have been: (i) that cannabis use precipitates schizophrenia in persons who are otherwise vulnerable; (ii) cannabis use is a form of self-medication for schizophrenia; and (iii) that the association arises from uncontrolled residual confounding by variables that predict an increased risk of cannabis use and of schizophrenia (Macleod et al., 2004).
I am a former family doctor and naturopathic physician as well as a medical editor and author, working mostly in academic research. In my practice I have always focused on natural medicine and helped my patients of all ages who haven’t responded to traditional treatments. I also have written a significant number of articles in botanical medicine, addiction, drugs. As of now I'm focused on cannabis researches, especially on cannabidiol, its health benefits and how it can improve life of people with severe diseases. You can read my articles here on CBDreamers
If your intention is to help treat chronic pain, then you may want to start out with a lower dose, and then proceed from there. If you notice effective results, you can downsize the dose, or likewise you can always up the dose until positive results are achieved. The key is to only increase your dosage in small increments so that you are able to pinpoint exactly how much CBD oil it takes to treat your condition. Be advised, though, that you should not exceed the recommended daily doses that are listed on the bottle and you should consult with a physician.
Under federal law, cannabis (from which both CBD and marijuana are derived) is illegal everywhere, although the laws against it aren’t generally enforced in states that have legalized marijuana. Some manufacturers claim that CBD culled from legally imported industrial hemp, which has little to no THC, is fine to ship across the U.S., but many experts disagree, noting that because hemp comes from the same species as marijuana, cannabis sativa, all CBD falls under the DEA’s Schedule 1 designation. “This creative interpretation of the law runs afoul of reality,” says the Brookings Institution, a Washington, DC, think tank.

Did you get an answer for this? I have the exact same scenario. I'm treating my TN with Tegretol, and recently tried CBD. I think I took too much and there are some weird drug interactions with Tegretol and I felt quite stoned....was alone and talking to myself in my head thinking I was Einstein. It freaked me out a bit but I think I took too much. I'm trying lower doses again as recently my TN seems to be resisting the meds, although I have had a lot of emotional stress, which seems to be a trigger. Thanks!! Anna
There are a number of issues that can arise from injuries where cannabidiol oil can make a huge difference. Injuries to the neck caused in a car accident, during a sporting event, or through some other kind of activity can be crippling. You can use hemp best CBD oil for neck pain which will not only reduce pain, but make movement in the neck a whole lot easier.
Cannabis use and psychotic symptoms and disorders are associated in the general population (see, for example, Degenhardt and Hall, 2001; Tien and Anthony, 1990) and in clinical samples of patients with schizophrenia (Mueser et al., 1992; Warner et al., 1994; Hambrecht and Hafner, 1996). The major contending hypotheses to explain the association have been: (i) that cannabis use precipitates schizophrenia in persons who are otherwise vulnerable; (ii) cannabis use is a form of self-medication for schizophrenia; and (iii) that the association arises from uncontrolled residual confounding by variables that predict an increased risk of cannabis use and of schizophrenia (Macleod et al., 2004).
CBD does not appear to have any psychotropic ("high") effects such as those caused by ∆9-THC in marijuana, but may have anti-anxiety and anti-psychotic effects.[10] As the legal landscape and understanding about the differences in medical cannabinoids unfolds, experts are working to distinguish "medical marijuana" (with varying degrees of psychotropic effects and deficits in executive function) – from "medical CBD therapies” which would commonly present as having a reduced or non-psychoactive side-effect profile.[10][59]
A 100-gram portion of hulled hemp seeds supplies 586 calories. They contain 5% water, 5% carbohydrates, 49% total fat, and 31% protein. Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value (DV) of protein per 100-gram serving.[20] Hemp seeds are a rich source of dietary fiber (20% DV), B vitamins, and the dietary minerals manganese (362% DV), phosphorus (236% DV), magnesium (197% DV), zinc (104% DV), and iron (61% DV). About 73% of the energy in hempseed is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids,[20] mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, oleic, and alpha-linolenic acids.[21]

The major symptom of many short and long-term illnesses is pain, both chronic and acute. Disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis, Diabetic Neuropathy and others, whether derived from the primary or central nervous system, leave patients with unrelenting pain not easily controlled by common pain medications. Although few randomized clinical trials over sufficiently extended periods of time measuring the effects of cannabidiol oil intake on pain management exist, preliminary studies suggest the use of CBD’s in chronic pain management to be useful allowing an increase in quality of life and the ability to rest without pain.  There is some research out there that suggests this might be a good solution for those that are sensitive to other medications as well.  We have attached some Medical publications, News Articles and some videos that touch on this subject.
A 2014 study stated that, “The endocannabinoid system has been elucidated over the last several years, demonstrating a significant interface with pain homeostasis. Exogenous (plant-based) cannabinoids have been demonstrated to be effective in a range of experimental neuropathic pain models, and there is mounting evidence for therapeutic use in human neuropathic pain conditions.”
Right now, due to arcane laws that are about to change around the world, and strange licensing procedures, cannabis is a supply issue, but that will all change over time.  Cannabis is a plant that can grow in 12 weeks, 16 weeks for some Indica strains.  There will never be a shortage or issue with getting cannabis when it is a plant that can be produced anywhere in the world, in large batches, every 12 weeks.
Living a healthy life means making lifestyle choices that support your physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional well-being. Managing your health can be challenging at times; while one facet of your wellness demands more attention than others, you may end up struggling to maintain a good balance in other areas. To be of sound body, mind, and spirit, it’s important to pay attention to all aspects of health—your mental, emotional, and spiritual sides all play a role in your physical welfare, and vice versa. A state of optimal well-being means more than just the absence of disease or disorder; it also means having the resources to cope with problems and circumstances beyond your control and recover from difficult or troubling situations. This intersection between health and behavior can help you prevent or at least delay chronic illness, and steer you to make better decisions about your well-being.

For those wondering does hemp CBD oil for pain relief really work? There have been many studies that have demonstrated that using CBD is one of the most effective means of helping people who are suffering from chronic forms of pain. For those who have had injuries or ailments that have caused debilitating pain even for a short period of time, there is truly nothing they want more than to see this pain reduced, if not removed all together. This has been of the great benefits of cannabidiol oil.


^ Jump up to: a b Deitch, Robert (2003). Hemp: American History Revisited: The Plant with a Divided History. Algora Publishing. pp. 4–26. ISBN 9780875862262. Retrieved 2013-11-16. Cannabis is ... a plant that played an important role in colonial America's prosperous economy and remained a valuable commercial commodity up until the Second World War.
Today, you’ll find nutty-tasting (hull-less) hemp seeds and their oils baked in breads, cookies, and cakes, blended in smoothies, or tossed into quinoa and pasta dishes, burgers, pizza, vegetables sautés, soups, salads, oatmeal, yogurt, trail mix, and salad dressings. It’s a niche market, with a growing number of specialty outlets due to a growing understanding of this food’s nutritional benefits.
Figuring out how much CBD oil to take can feel like trying to navigate through a complicated maze. The sheer volume of CBD brands on the market can create confusion for consumers, and when you take a closer look, it’s not difficult to understand why. Not only do vendors use different source materials (CBD-rich cannabis vs. industrial hemp, different strains, etc.), but they also implement different extraction techniques .
But, uh, what is it that CBD is supposed to do? I visited a cannabis dispensary in Boulder to find out what the hype was all about. After passing an ID check, I was introduced to a “budtender” who pointed me to an impressive array of CBD products — tinctures, skin patches, drink powders, candies, salves, massage oil, lotions, “sexy time personal intimacy oil” and even vaginal suppositories to treat menstrual cramps.
CBD concentrates typically contain the strongest dosage of CBD compared to any other CBD products. It can contain up to 10 times the average CBD products. Concentrates are also convenient in that it only takes a few seconds to consume. Overall, CBD concentrates seem to be most popular among customers who are extremely busy, yet seek high potency CBD.
A chief argument that has been advanced in favor of developing hemp as a paper and pulp source has been that as a non-wood or tree-free fiber source, it can reduce harvesting of primary forests and the threat to associated biodiversity. It has been claimed that hemp produces three to four times as much useable fiber per hectare per annum as forests. However, Wong (1998) notes evidence that in the southern US hemp would produce only twice as much pulp as does a pine plantation (but see discussion below on suitability of hemp as a potential lumber substitute in areas lacking trees).
CBD is able to reduce inflammation in the body by limiting re-uptake of the neurotransmitter adenosine. CBD does this, in part, by inhibiting equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1). By slowing its re-uptake, the amount of adenosine in the brain is increased which in turn impacts the activity of adenosine receptors.  These receptors, particularly the A2A receptor, play a significant role in reducing inflammation throughout the body.
PHOENIX, AZ / ACCESSWIRE / March 6, 2019 / Uptick Newswire Stock Day Podcast welcomed Hemp Inc., (OTC PINK: HEMP) a company that seeks to build a business constituency for the American small farmer, the American veteran, and other groups experiencing the ever-increasing disparity between tapering income and soaring expenses. CEO, Bruce Perlowin, joined Stock Day host Everett Jolly. To begin the interview Perlowin explained that the Company began by demonstrating what can be developed with hemp, particularly in the industrial setting.
A limited number of studies have examined the effects of cannabis smoking on the respiratory system.[89] Chronic heavy marijuana smoking is associated with coughing, production of sputum, wheezing, and other symptoms of chronic bronchitis.[69] The available evidence does not support a causal relationship between cannabis use and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.[90] Short-term use of cannabis is associated with bronchodilation.[91] Other side effects of cannabis use include cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome.[92]

Concerns are frequently noted with new drug-drug interactions, but few have resulted in Sativex RCTs despite its adjunctive use with opiates, many other psychoactive analgesic, antidepressant and anticonvulsant drugs (Russo 2006a), possibly due to CBD ability to counteract sedative effects of THC (Nicholson et al 2004). No effects of THC extract, CBD extract or Sativex were observed in a study of effects on the hepatic cytochrome P450 complex (Stott et al 2005b). On additional study, at 314 ng/ml cannabinoid concentration, Sativex and components produced no significant induction on human CYP450 (Stott et al 2007). Thus, Sativex should be safe to use in conjunction with other drugs metabolized via this pathway.
I have severe neuropathy in both feet and legs. I just got the CBD oil and I am interested in learning if anyone out there has had any success with this. I know each case and pain levels are different. Just would like to see some positive remarks from people who suffer with it. I am not looking for a cure just need an update on someone who took and it helped. I already know there is no cure. I need help with the pain. Thank you.

There's no question that CBD is the buzzy wellness product of the moment. If you live in a state where it's currently legal, you might feel like CBD has gone from being sort of around to absolutely everywhere all at once. Coffee shops sell CBD lattes, spas offer CBD facials, beauty companies are rushing to release lotions with CBD or hemp oils in their formulas. And everyone from your anxious coworker to your arthritis-suffering dad wants to get their hands on some CBD gummies.


Unlike other CBD oils, PureKana really does excel in CBD oil extractions due to their unique CO2 extraction process which provides a near 99% pure CBD oil. PureKana Natural CBD Oil is an unflavored, dietary and nutritional supplement for increased health and vitality. It is extremely effective in treating chronic pain, inflammation, swelling, anxiety and sleep disorders.
Dispensaries are charging 30 bucks and ounce for Hemp Oil so they have no economic incentive to derive the CBD from Marijuana. I found that it was like pulling teeth, just to get the to admit the CBD oil came from Hemp. They isolate the CBD and then add it back to the Oil. This means there is no THC or Terpenes or any of the beneficial compounds found in marijuana.
Some jurisdictions use free voluntary treatment programs and/or mandatory treatment programs for frequent known users. Simple possession can carry long prison terms in some countries, particularly in East Asia, where the sale of cannabis may lead to a sentence of life in prison or even execution. Political parties, non-profit organizations, and causes based on the legalization of medical cannabis and/or legalizing the plant entirely (with some restrictions) have emerged in such countries as China and Thailand.[225][226]

Dispensaries: In states where marijuana is legal for recreational use, dispensaries are a common sight. They are much rarer in states with more restrictions. In states that permit the use of medical marijuana, hemp-based CBD oils do not normally require a prescription but marijuana-based oils do. Like brick-and-mortar locations, dispensaries offer more customer service. However, as noted, this may not be an option depending on the buyer’s state of residence. Also, CBD oil prices tend to be significantly higher at dispensaries.
Pain from inflammation can and will likely affect all adults at some point in their lives, and for some, become chronic conditions that interfere with a normal quality of life. Over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription anti-inflammatory medications are easily available, readily prescribed, and very commonly used.  The most common anti-inflammatory medications are called NSAIDs: non-steroidal... Read more
Despite the fact that Cannabis was grown on a large scale in many countries, the abuse as a narcotic remained uncommon in Western countries until relatively recently. People were largely unaware of the psychoactive properties of Cannabis and it is unlikely that early cultivars, selected mainly for their seed or fiber qualities, contained significant amounts of the psychoactive THC. The medicinal use of Cannabis was introduced in Europe only around 1840, by a young Irish doctor, William O’Shaughnessy, who served for the East India Trading Company in India, where the medicinal use of Cannabis was widespread. Unlike the European fiber Cannabis, these Indian varieties did contain a reasonable amount of bioactive cannabinoids. In the following decades, the medicinal use of Cannabis saw a short period of popularity both in Europe and in the United States. At the top of its popularity, more than 28 different medicinal preparations were available with Cannabis as active ingredient, which were recommended for indications as various as menstrual cramps, asthma, cough, insomnia, support of birth labor, migraine, throat infection, and withdrawal from opium use.27
Health, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."[1][2] This definition has been subject to controversy, as it may have limited value for implementation.[3][4][5] Health may be defined as the ability to adapt and manage physical, mental and social challenges throughout life.[6]
It seems like everyone and her sister (and grandma, and aunt and second cousin twice-removed, and ... you get it) is sprinkling CBD oil in her smoothies because of claims it can help with everything from pain to anxiety. But what about CBD's sister: hemp oil? Are hemp oil benefits legit? Proponents say it can help with sleep and anxiety, balance your hormones, make your skin glow, and protect your ticker. But here's what you should know before you start drizzling it on top of your food or slathering it on your skin.
Cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are two compounds found within the cannabis plant that are showing promise as pain relievers. And as the legalization of cannabis continues to spread, and as researchers continue to study the plant’s therapeutic potential, the stigma will continue to disappear. The number of people using CBD for pain relief is on the rise, showing that cannabis, and the cannabinoids it produces, can do so much more than produce an intoxicating high, it can actually help heal.

Sativex® (GW Pharmaceuticals) is an oromucosal whole cannabis-based spray combining a CB1 partial agonist (THC) with a cannabinoid system modulator (CBD), minor cannabinoids and terpenoids plus ethanol and propylene glycol excipients and peppermint flavoring (McPartland and Russo 2001; Russo and Guy 2006). It was approved by Health Canada in June 2005 for prescription for central neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, and in August 2007, it was additionally approved for treatment of cancer pain unresponsive to optimized opioid therapy. Sativex is a highly standardized pharmaceutical product derived from two Cannabis sativa chemovars following Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) (de Meijer 2004), yielding Tetranabinex® (predominantly-THC extract) and Nabidiolex® (predominantly-CBD extract) in a 1:1 ratio. Each 100 μL pump-action oromucosal Sativex spray actuation provides 2.7 mg of THC and 2.5 mg of CBD. Pharmacokinetic data are available, and indicate plasma half lives of 85 minutes for THC, 130 minutes for 11-hydroxy-THC and 100 minutes for CBD (Guy and Robson 2003). Sativex effects commence in 15–40 minutes, an interval that permits symptomatic dose titration. A very favorable adverse event profile has been observed in over 2500 patient years of exposure in over 2000 experimental subjects. Patients most often ascertain an individual stable dosage within 7–10 days that provides therapeutic relief without unwanted psychotropic effects (often in the range of 8–10 sprays per day). In all RCTs, Sativex was adjunctively added to optimal drug regimens in subjects with intractable symptoms, those often termed “untreatable.” Sativex is also available by named patient prescription in the UK and the Catalonia region of Spain. An Investigational New Drug (IND) application to study Sativex in advanced clinical trials in the USA was approved by the FDA in January 2006 in patients with intractable cancer pain.


There are many varieties of cannabis infusions owing to the variety of non-volatile solvents used.[189] The plant material is mixed with the solvent and then pressed and filtered to express the oils of the plant into the solvent. Examples of solvents used in this process are cocoa butter, dairy butter, cooking oil, glycerine, and skin moisturizers. Depending on the solvent, these may be used in cannabis foods or applied topically.[190]
The 2018 Farm Bill changed federal policy regarding industry hemp, including the removal of hemp from the Controlled Substances Act and the consideration of hemp as an agricultural product. The bill legalized hemp under certain restrictions and expanded the definition of industrial hemp from the last 2014 Farm Bill. The bill also allows states and tribes to submit a plan and apply for primary regulatory authority over the production of hemp in their state or in their tribal territory. A state plan must include certain requirements, such as keeping track of land, testing methods,  and disposal of plants or products that exceed the allowed THC concentration.
Will hemp commercial cultivation resume in the US in the foreseeable future? This is difficult to judge, but the following considerations suggest this might occur: (1) increasing awareness of the differences between industrial hemp and marijuana; (2) growing appreciation of the environmental benefits of hemp cultivation; (3) continuing demonstration of successful hemp cultivation and development in most of the remaining western world; all the G8 countries, except the US, produce and export industrial hemp; and (4) increasing pressure on state and federal governments to permit hemp cultivation by farmers, particularly wheat, corn, and tobacco farmers in desperate need of substitute crops, but also for rotation crops to break pest and disease cycles.
What is CBD Pain Freeze? Hemp Bombs CBD Pain Freeze is a premium CBD topical infused with the soothing qualities of Menthol and Camphor Oil. It features the medicinal properties of CBD, or Cannabidiol, which may help relieve inflammation, reduce chronic pain and provide support to your bones, joints and muscles.  CBD Pain Freeze is formulated to absorb deeply without leaving a sticky residue. This deep-penetrating CBD rub is a popular choice among athletes, senior ...
The Marijuana business has become like a Cult. They whole heartedly ‘Believe” it cures cancer and a host of other issues. A local University “Researcher” has moved in to provide more pseudo science with a narrow, self selected “Survey.” The results or lack of Scientific rigor don’t matter to these people, it is more profitable to ignore the facts and science. They already believe that Medical Marijuana can replace pain medications for chronic pain.

"In addition, as part of the FY2017 appropriations debate, the Senate committee report urged USDA 'to clarify the Agency’s authority to award Federal funds to research projects deemed compliant with Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014.'51 The latter provision addresses questions by a number of state and private research institutions about the extent to which industrial hemp initiatives might be eligible for U.S. federal grant programs (both USDA and non-USDA program funds). Previously, in November 2015, several Members of Congress sent a letter to USDA requesting clarification of the agency’s research funds for industrial hemp.52"


Concrete-like blocks made with hemp and lime have been used as an insulating material for construction. Such blocks are not strong enough to be used for structural elements; they must be supported by a brick, wood, or steel frame.[28] However, hemp fibres are extremely strong and durable, and have been shown to be usable as a replacement for wood for many jobs, including creating very durable and breathable homes. The most common use of hemp lime in building is by casting the hemp and lime mix while wet around a timber frame with temporary shuttering, and tamping the mix to form a firm mass; after the removal of the temporary shuttering, the solidified hemp mix is then ready to be plastered with a lime plaster.[29]
One area where CBD is clearly helpful: the treatment of seizures associated with one form of epilepsy. A 2017 New England Journal of Medicine study found ingesting oral CBD dramatically cut down most patients’ seizure frequency—a finding that prompted the FDA to support the approval of one CBD drug for use in the treatment of some epilepsy patients.
In states with medical cannabis laws, consumers should try to purchase cannabis from licensed suppliers who share their test results, which hopefully validate their products’ robust cannabinoid and terpenoid profiles. If you’re looking to purchase hemp through an online outlet, research your purchase beforehand to ensure that you aren’t being duped.

“Geotextiles” or “agricultural textiles” include (1) ground-retaining, biodegradable matting designed to prevent soil erosion, especially to stabilize new plantings while they develop root systems along steep highway banks to prevent soil slippage (Fig. 32); and (2) ground-covers designed to reduce weeds in planting beds (in the manner of plastic mulch). At present the main materials used are polymeric (polythene, spun-blown polypropylene) and some glass fiber and natural fibers. Both woven and non-woven fibers can be applied to geotextiles; woven and knitted materials are stronger and the open structure may be advantageous (e.g. in allowing plants to grow through), but non-wovens are cheaper and better at suppressing weeds. Flax and hemp fibers exposed to water and soil have been claimed to disintegrate rapidly over the course of a few months, which would make them unacceptable for products that need to have long-term stability when exposed to water and oil. Coco (coir) fiber has been said to be much more suitable, due to higher lignin content (40%–50%, compared to 2%–5% in bast fibers); these are much cheaper than flax and hemp fibers (Karus et al. 2000). However, this analysis does not do justice to the developing hemp geotextile market. Production of hemp erosion control mats is continuing in both Europe and Canada. Given the reputation for rot resistance of hemp canvas and rope, it seems probable that ground matting is a legitimate use. Moreover, the ability to last outdoors for many years is frequently undesirable in geotextiles. For example, the widespread current use of plastic netting to reinforce grass sod is quite objectionable, the plastic persisting for many years and interfering with lawn care. Related to geotextile applications is the possibility of using hemp fiber as a planting substrate (biodegradable pots and blocks for plants), and as biodegradable twine to replace plastic ties used to attach plants to supporting poles. Still another consideration is the “green ideal” of producing locally for local needs; by this credo, hemp is preferable in temperate regions to the use of tropical fibers, which need to be imported.
Nature’s Script also sells a pet CBD tincture in 150mg, 300mg, and 1,000mg concentrations. As a general rule of thumb, low-concentration oils are a good option for smaller dogs while larger concentrations may be more suitable for larger breeds – but pet owners should always check with their vet beforehand. In addition to standard shipping, Nature’s Script offers expedited delivery for customers in the contiguous U.S.
The earliest recorded uses date from the 3rd millennium BC.[32] Since the early 20th century, cannabis has been subject to legal restrictions. The possession, use, and sale of cannabis is illegal in most countries of the world.[33][34] Medical cannabis refers to the physician-recommended use of cannabis, which takes place in Canada, Belgium, Australia, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, and 33 U.S. states.[35][36] In September 2018, cannabis was legalized in South Africa[37] while Canada legalized recreational use of cannabis in October 2018.[38]
"Skunk" refers to several named strains of potent cannabis, grown through selective breeding and sometimes hydroponics. It is a cross-breed of Cannabis sativa and C. indica (although other strains of this mix exist in abundance). Skunk cannabis potency ranges usually from 6% to 15% and rarely as high as 20%. The average THC level in coffee shops in the Netherlands is about 18–19%.[254]
Infusions: Research and opportunity have driven chefs and chemists to infuse CBD into all sorts of readily usable products, such as edibles to elixirs, sublingual sprays, capsules and even topicals. Much like concentrates, each infusion sports specific combinations or isolations of CBD, THC, and other cannabinoids, allowing users to pick and choose products that suit their exact needs. CBD topicals, for example, are incredibly effective when applied to surface-level problems like bruises, joint aches, and headaches, and have been scientifically proven to successfully combat skin-based issues including pruritus with far broader implications.
Our pick for Best Customer Experience is Populum, an Arizona-based CBD brand that offers complete product transparency and great deals for shoppers. Populum offers a full spectrum CBD oil in 250mg, 500mg, and 1000mg concentrations. The product is made with cold-pressed orange oil for a light citrus taste, as well as grapeseed and coconut oils for added flavors. Populum also offers a cooling topical salve that relaxes aching joints and muscles, as well as a pet oil for dogs and cats. Additionally, the CBD oil, topical salve, and pet oil are packaged in an inexpensive ‘Starter Kit’ designed for first-time users.
The Strategist is designed to surface the most useful, expert recommendations for things to buy across the vast e-commerce landscape. Some of our latest conquests include the best acne treatments, rolling luggage, pillows for side sleepers, natural anxiety remedies, and bath towels. We update links when possible, but note that deals can expire and all prices are subject to change.
There are lots of reasons to invest in hardy Doc Marten boots, but the process of actually breaking them in? Extremely painful. Last December, I found myself hobbling back to my apartment with new-Doc battle wounds — a cut on my ankle and swollen, blistering feet. On a lark, I used the supposedly miraculous CBD lotion from Lord Jones. I can’t believe I’m saying this, but it worked.
In Japan, hemp was historically used as paper and a fiber crop. There is archaeological evidence cannabis was used for clothing and the seeds were eaten in Japan back to the Jōmon period (10,000 to 300 BC). Many Kimono designs portray hemp, or asa (Japanese: 麻), as a beautiful plant. In 1948, marijuana was restricted as a narcotic drug. The ban on marijuana imposed by the United States authorities was alien to Japanese culture, as the drug had never been widely used in Japan before. Though these laws against marijuana are some of the world's strictest, allowing five years imprisonment for possession of the drug, they exempt hemp growers, whose crop is used to make robes for Buddhist monks and loincloths for Sumo wrestlers. Because marijuana use in Japan has doubled in the past decade, these exemptions have recently been called into question.[150]
With that said, I'm definitely intrigued enough by the subtle effects to continue taking the oil and possibly even to up the dosage to the recommended two full droppers of the 30mL bottle per day for a week or so. Plus, I take comfort in knowing that it's an all-natural treatment for anxiety that's responsibly grown on family farms in Colorado. Something that's safe, legal, requires no prescription, and makes me less anxious, less scatterbrained, and more focused? I'm definitely on board.
Without arguing the merits of the above contentions, we point out that the legitimate use of hemp for non-intoxicant purposes has been inhibited by the continuing ferocious war against drug abuse. In this atmosphere, objective analysis has often been lacking. Unfortunately both proponents and opponents have tended to engage in exaggeration. Increasingly, however, the world is testing the potential of hemp in the field and marketplace, which surely must be the ultimate arbiters. De Guzman (2001), noting the pessimistic USDA report, observed that “Nevertheless, others point to the potential of [the] market. Hemp products have a growing niche market of their own, and the market will remain healthy and be well supported with many competing brands.”

In September 2018, following its approval by the FDA for rare types of childhood epilepsy,[13] Epidiolex was rescheduled (by the Drug Enforcement Administration) as a Schedule V drug to allow for its prescription use.[14] This change applies only to FDA-approved products containing no more than 0.1 percent THC.[14] This allows GW Pharmaceuticals to sell Epidiolex, but it does not apply broadly and all other CBD-containing products remain Schedule I drugs.[14] Epidiolex still requires rescheduling in some states before it can be prescribed in those states.[65][66]


Cannabis, especially the cannabinoid CBD, has also demonstrated its abilities as a powerful anti-convulsant. This property is what accounts for cannabis’ ability to reduce the severity and frequency of seizures, especially for people with epilepsy. In the United States, epilepsy is the most widely adopted qualifying condition for medical cannabis use, especially for children.


However, because no tools existed for quality control, it was impossible to prepare a standardized medicine, so patients often received a dose that was either too low, having no effect, or too high, resulting in serious side effects. Moreover, Cannabis extract was not water-soluble and therefore could not be injected (in contrast to, e.g., the opiates), whereas oral administration was found to be unreliable because of its slow and erratic absorption. Because of such drawbacks, the medicinal use of Cannabis increasingly disappeared in the beginning of the twentieth century, and in 1937 Cannabis was removed from the US pharmacopoeia, a move that was followed by most other Western countries.27 Isolation and structure elucidation of the first pure active substances from Cannabis was not achieved until the 1960s.29
The vast majority of subjects in Sativex clinical trials do not experience psychotropic effects outside of initial dose titration intervals (Figure 2) and most often report subjective intoxication levels on visual analogue scales that are indistinguishable from placebo, in the single digits out of 100 (Wade et al 2006). Thus, it is now longer tenable to claim that psychoactive effects are a necessary prerequisite to symptom relief in the therapeutic setting with a standardized intermediate onset cannabis-based preparation. Intoxication has remained a persistent issue in Marinol usage (Calhoun et al 1998), in contrast.

Modern decorticating techniques employ steam explosion (treating the fibers with steam through a pressurized chamber) and ultrasonic breaking (breaking down fibers using ultrasonic waves) to maintain the integrity of the fibers throughout the process. These techniques are not as harsh on the stalks and allow processors to use the fibers on cotton and wool processing machinery.
More recent studies have focused on the mechanisms behind the schizophrenia–cannabis interaction. Epstein and Kumra (2014) tested the effect of cannabis on executive control of attention and cognitive function by comparing scores on the Attention Network Test among people with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and cannabis use disorder, only EOS, only cannabis use disorder, and controls. They found that the first group in particular had less efficient executive control of attention compared with those who had only EOS. They also found a smaller right caudal anterior cingulate cortex in subjects with EOS and cannabis use disorder. However, it is presently unclear whether this means that the smaller cortex surface leads to deficits in self-regulation and heavy cannabis use or if the direction of causation is in the opposite direction. More recent studies have suggested gene–environment correlation between cannabis use and schizophrenia in that the increased risk of schizophrenia after heavy and consistent cannabis use may be moderated by a shared gene that may explain part of the association (Power et al., 2014).
Cannabis lowers the pressure in the eye that causes optic nerve damage leading to glaucoma. Research has shown conclusively that marijuana users experience lower internal eye pressure while the body metabolizes THC. However, the psychoactive side effects of using THC to treat glaucoma make cannabis a nonviable medication for most people with the disease.

Anecdotal evidence from patients is becoming increasingly widespread as well. Morgan Freeman suffers from pain and he was quoted saying, “I have fibromyalgia pain in my arm and the only thing that offers any relief is marijuana.” Whoopi Goldberg also uses cannabis to treat her daily pain from glaucoma and has even launched a line of medical cannabis products geared towards women suffering from menstrual pain.
With marijuana, apparently, we’re still waiting for this information. It’s hard to study a substance that until very recently has been almost universally illegal. And the few studies we do have were done mostly in the nineteen-eighties and nineties, when cannabis was not nearly as potent as it is now. Because of recent developments in plant breeding and growing techniques, the typical concentration of THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, has gone from the low single digits to more than twenty per cent—from a swig of near-beer to a tequila shot.
I always tell beginners for CBD use to use full-spectrum. The full-spectrum oils contain a lot of terpenes and other good stuff along with CBD and help much more when you suffer from anxiety attacks. CBDistillery also has a wide range of potencies to choose from. Unlike, FabCBD, which offers only limited capacities, CBDistillery’s oils go up to 5000mg per bottle and it is indeed one of the best CBD oils for pain in the market
In addition to providing useful fibers, hemp seed also has high nutritional value. and the plant can be used to make biodegradable plastics, some fuels, and a variety of other things. Hemp foods including but not limited to hemp energy bars, hemp salad dressing,hemp milk, hemp protein shakes, hemp oil gel caps and hemp protein powder are among some of the health products being produced today. Visit the Hemp Education pages to learn more!
Though unflavored and priced higher than competitors, Green Roads CBD oils are made by a trusted manufacturer and use organically grown hemp. Following the CO2 supercritical fluid extraction process, board-certified pharmacists formulate the tincture by hand. Green Roads only sells CBD isolates, so if you’re looking for broad-spectrum products look to some of our other recommendations.
After revisions to cannabis scheduling in the UK, the government moved cannabis back from a class C to a class B drug. A purported reason was the appearance of high potency cannabis. They believe skunk accounts for between 70 and 80% of samples seized by police[163] (despite the fact that skunk can sometimes be incorrectly mistaken for all types of herbal cannabis).[164][165] Extracts such as hashish and hash oil typically contain more THC than high potency cannabis flowers.[166]
Concrete-like blocks made with hemp and lime have been used as an insulating material for construction. Such blocks are not strong enough to be used for structural elements; they must be supported by a brick, wood, or steel frame.[28] However, hemp fibres are extremely strong and durable, and have been shown to be usable as a replacement for wood for many jobs, including creating very durable and breathable homes. The most common use of hemp lime in building is by casting the hemp and lime mix while wet around a timber frame with temporary shuttering, and tamping the mix to form a firm mass; after the removal of the temporary shuttering, the solidified hemp mix is then ready to be plastered with a lime plaster.[29]

Both in Canada and the US, the most critical problem to be addressed for commercial exploitation of C. sativa is the possible unauthorized drug use of the plant. Indeed, the reason hemp cultivation was made illegal in North America was concern that the hemp crop was a drug menace. The drug potential is, for practical purposes, measured by the presence of THC. THC is the world’s most popular illicit chemical, and indeed the fourth most popular recreational drug, after caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine. “Industrial hemp” is a phrase that has become common to designate hemp used for commercial non-intoxicant purposes. Small and Cronquist (1976) split C. sativa into two subspecies: C. sativa subsp. sativa, with less than 0.3% (dry weight) of THC in the upper (reproductive) part of the plant, and C. sativa subsp. indica (Lam.) E. Small & Cronq. with more than 0.3% THC. This classification has since been adopted in the European Community, Canada, and parts of Australia as a dividing line between cultivars that can be legally cultivated under license and forms that are considered to have too high a drug potential. For a period, 0.3% was also the allowable THC content limit for cultivation of hemp in the Soviet Union. In the US, Drug Enforcement Agency guidelines issued Dec. 7, 1999 expressly allowed products with a THC content of less than 0.3% to enter the US without a license; but subsequently permissible levels have been a source of continuing contention. Marijuana in the illicit market typically has a THC content of 5% to 10% (levels as high as 25% have been reported), and as a point of interest, a current Canadian government experimental medicinal marijuana production contract calls for the production of 6% marijuana. As noted above, a level of about 1% THC is considered the threshold for marijuana to have intoxicating potential, so the 0.3% level is conservative, and some countries (e.g. parts of Australia, Switzerland) have permitted the cultivation of cultivars with higher levels. It should be appreciated that there is considerable variation in THC content in different parts of the plant. THC content increases in the following order: achenes (excluding bracts), roots, large stems, smaller stems, older and larger leaves, younger and smaller leaves, flowers, perigonal bracts covering both the female flowers and fruits. It is well known in the illicit trade how to screen off the more potent fractions of the plant in order to increase THC levels in resultant drug products. Nevertheless, a level of 0.3% THC in the flowering parts of the plant is reflective of material that is too low in intoxicant potential to actually be used practically for illicit production of marijuana or other types of cannabis drugs. Below, the problem of permissible levels of THC in food products made from hempseed is discussed.
Hi, I am new to trying CBD oil for chronic pain. I really do not know where to begin . For 14 yrs now I have been living with chronic back pain. I have had surgery, numerous shots, etc. I have been on pain ( opiods) for 14 yrs. I am looking to find something not only for my pain, depression, not sleeping ,anxiety, etc. I know that most my problems come from my chronic pain and being on pain meds for so long. Can anyone please recommend a CBD oil product and strength for me. I have been reading all the reviews and I just need someone to help. I have talked to my Doctor about it and he feels that I should try, but didn’t recommend what.
If you live in a state where CBD is legal for your condition, it’s best to buy it from a state-regulated dispensary. But even there, oversight is uneven. “I feel safe being a cannabis consumer in Colorado, since the state tracks everything from seed to sale, but I didn’t the first few years after cannabis became legal,” when the rules were still taking shape, says Robyn Griggs Lawrence, the Boulder author of The Cannabis Kitchen Cookbook, which features recipes for cannabis edibles.
"Results of the hemp products tested indicate the amount of THC present in commercially available products is significantly less in products available today than those reported in the past (15-22). As a result, the probability that these products will produce urine THC metabolite levels greater than the DoD and HHS confirmation cutoff of 15 ng/mL is significantly reduced and should not be considered as a realistic cause for a positive urine analysis result."
Today, you’ll find nutty-tasting (hull-less) hemp seeds and their oils baked in breads, cookies, and cakes, blended in smoothies, or tossed into quinoa and pasta dishes, burgers, pizza, vegetables sautés, soups, salads, oatmeal, yogurt, trail mix, and salad dressings. It’s a niche market, with a growing number of specialty outlets due to a growing understanding of this food’s nutritional benefits.
"In addition, as part of the FY2017 appropriations debate, the Senate committee report urged USDA 'to clarify the Agency’s authority to award Federal funds to research projects deemed compliant with Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014.'51 The latter provision addresses questions by a number of state and private research institutions about the extent to which industrial hemp initiatives might be eligible for U.S. federal grant programs (both USDA and non-USDA program funds). Previously, in November 2015, several Members of Congress sent a letter to USDA requesting clarification of the agency’s research funds for industrial hemp.52"
Cannabidiol, or CBD for short, is a natural phyto-cannabinoid (or plant-based chemical compound) found in cannabis plants, including hemp and marijuana. Unlike other cannabinoids — namely tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC — CBD does not produce any psychoactive effects, and will actually counteract these effects to a degree. CBD will induce feelings of sleepiness; for this reason, it can be an effective soporific for people who struggle to fall and/or remain asleep due to insomnia and other sleep disorders.
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