First, a little background. Industrial hemp was legal in the United States until Congress passed the Marihuana Tax Act in 1937. ("Some of our early presidents grew hemp," notes Sarah Lee Gossett Parrish, a cannabis industry attorney based in Oklahoma.) Nearly 80 years later, the 2014 Farm Bill took the position that states can regulate the production of hemp and, as a result, CBD. Then last year, President Trump signed a new Farm Bill that made it federally legal to grow hemp.


Hi Lauren I've just started today with 250mg cbd oil. I'm starting low to see what happens. I've nerve damage across buttocks from a laminectomy. I've not been able to sit for 5 years. I've recently started with a muscle spasm in my left buttock and the muscle above is painful. It is only the first day, also tried a cbd night time tea as well. Do change in muscle pain so tight on my left hand side. How long before felt it starting to work please. I'm trying not to expect changes straightaway. I also take 1100mg gabapentin and 30mg amitriptyline and I hate both of them - they both can cause muscle tightness affecting the nerve. Thank you Lyn
With marijuana, apparently, we’re still waiting for this information. It’s hard to study a substance that until very recently has been almost universally illegal. And the few studies we do have were done mostly in the nineteen-eighties and nineties, when cannabis was not nearly as potent as it is now. Because of recent developments in plant breeding and growing techniques, the typical concentration of THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, has gone from the low single digits to more than twenty per cent—from a swig of near-beer to a tequila shot. 

Because hemp-derived CBD currently lacks labeling and purity standards that are required of cannabis products sold at legal dispensaries, it exists in a regulatory limbo that laws don’t yet address. In the meantime, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health has announced that starting in July, putting CBD in food products will cost businesses points on their health inspections.
Marijuana looks contrastingly different from hemp. When you observe their leaves, marijuana’s shape tends to either be broad leafed, a tight bud, or look like a nugget with organd hairs.  Hemp, on the other hand, has skinnier leaves that’s concentrated at the top. Few branches or leaves exist below the top part of the plant. When you observe the plants from afar, marijuana looks like a short fat bush. Hemp is typically skinnier and taller (up to 20 ft). At times, it almost looks like long ditchweed – hemp was actually found to grow among weeds in Nebraska. In general, when you compare a marijuana farm with those of industrial hemp, you’ll notice that they are clearly very different from one another.
In addition to the daily pain management program outlined above, many people find they still need a safe way to manage acute flare ups. Whether it’s caused by a recent injury, cold weather, or general aggravation  – we recommend vaporizing CBD isolate to combat these acute pain flare ups. The benefit of vaporizing or dabbing CBD isolate is that the relief can be felt almost instantaneously. CBD isolate is 99% pure CBD and provides a wave of relief that can be felt throughout the whole body.
Thermal Insulation. Thermal insulation products (Fig. 20, 21) are the third most important sector of the hemp industry of the EU. These are in very high demand because of the alarmingly high costs of heating fuels, ecological concerns about conservation of non-renewable resources, and political-strategic concerns about dependence on current sources of oil. This is a market that is growing very fast, and hemp insulation products are increasing in popularity. In Europe, it has been predicted that tens of thousands of tonnes will be sold by 2005, shared between hemp and flax (Karus et al. 2000).
CBD stands for cannabidiol. Cannabidiol is one of over 80 chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant, called cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are naturally occurring and each one is uniquely different from the next. We are still just beginning to understand the many benefits that cannabinoids have how they interact with our bodies. CBD is non-psychoactive, unlike the more commonly known cannabinoid, THC. THC is known for the “high” feeling. You won’t feel any psychoactive, high effects when consuming CBD by itself. However, the “entourage effect” states that a combination of cannabinoids will work better together than a cannabinoid by itself. Essentially, when CBD is combined with low doses of THC and other cannabinoids like CBG and CBN in a product, it will work better than if that product contained just CBD by itself. This is where the term “full-spectrum” comes from. CBD products with the full-spectrum label are stating that other cannabinoids present and are implying that product may be more effective.
What has been found is that you can use best CBD hemp oil for pain relief in a wide variety of areas. It starts with those who have “everyday” kinds of pains that come in areas of the body where it is common to have suffering over time or where injuries are common. Many have found that using CBD oil for back pain reduces the effects that can be felt from slipped discs, degenerations, and even from genetic conditions that can cause issues with the back like muscular sclerosis.
I have sporadic back spasms for year I see a chiropractor monthly for maintenance (it help) and deal with daily Knee & hip joint pain due to my job (heavy mechanic/steel work with lots of walking). after reading all the great reviews on CBD oil I want to get off the daily ibuprofen regiment and try CBD oil. I would like to try it as a gel cap but would like some advise on dosage size. I also want to know how often I should take the CBD treatments. any and all advise is appreciated
A few years ago, the National Academy of Medicine convened a panel of sixteen leading medical experts to analyze the scientific literature on cannabis. The report they prepared, which came out in January of 2017, runs to four hundred and sixty-eight pages. It contains no bombshells or surprises, which perhaps explains why it went largely unnoticed. It simply stated, over and over again, that a drug North Americans have become enthusiastic about remains a mystery.
"In the past there has been ongoing tension between federal and state authorities over state hemp policies. After North Dakota passed its own state law authorizing industrial hemp production in 1999,62 researchers repeatedly applied for, but did not receive, a DEA permit to cultivate hemp for research purposes in the state.63 Also in 2007, two North Dakota farmers were granted state hemp farming licenses and, in June 2007, filed a lawsuit in U.S. District Court (North Dakota) seeking 'a declaratory judgment' that the CSA 'does not prohibit their cultivation of industrial hemp pursuant to their state licenses.'64 The case was dismissed in November 2007.65 The case was appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals (Eighth Circuit) but was again dismissed in December 2009.66 The farmers filed an appeal in May 2010.67
Health.com is part of the Meredith Health Group. ©, Copyright 2019 Meredith Corporation. All rights reserved. The material in this site is intended to be of general informational use and is not intended to constitute medical advice, probable diagnosis, or recommended treatments. All products and services featured are selected by our editors. Health.com may receive compensation for some links to products and services on this website. Offers may be subject to change without notice. See the Terms of Servicethis link opens in a new tab and Privacy Policythis link opens in a new tab (Your California Rightsthis link opens in a new tab)for more information. Ad Choicesthis link opens in a new tab | EU Data Subject Requeststhis link opens in a new tab

Fig. 8. Scanning electron micrographs of the abaxial surface of a perigonal bract (which envelops the fruit). These bracts are the most intoxicating part of the plant, and may contain 20% THC, dry weight. The resin is synthesized both in stalked and sessile glands. Multicellular secretory glands (of phallic appearance), some broken stalks of these (note cellular appearance), and unicellular cystolith hairs (claw-like structures) are pictured. Fig. 9. Some important cannabinoids of cannabis resin. D9-THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol) is the chief intoxicant chemical and predominates in intoxicant strains, while the isomer D8-THC is usually present in no more than trace amounts. CBD (cannabidiol) is the chief non-intoxicant chemical, and predominates in non-intoxicant strains; it has sedative effects. The non-intoxicant CBN (cannabinol) is a frequent degradation or oxidation product. The non-intoxicant cannabichromene (CBC) is typically found in trace amounts in intoxicant strains. The non-intoxicant cannabigerol (CBG) is considered to be a precursor of the other cannbinoids (see Fig. 10).
The above uses are based on hemp as a mechanical strengthener of materials. Hemp can also be chemically combined with materials. For example, hemp with gypsum and binding agents may produce light panels that might compete with drywall. Hemp and lime mixtures make a high quality plaster. Hemp hurds are rich in silica (which occurs naturally in sand and flint), and the hurds mixed with lime undergo mineralization, to produce a stone-like material. The technology is most advanced in France (Fig. 26). The mineralized material can be blown or poured into the cavities of walls and in attics as insulation. The foundations, walls, floors, and ceilings of houses have been made using hemp hurds mixed with natural lime and water. Sometimes plaster of Paris (pure gypsum), cement, or sand is added. The resulting material can be poured like concrete, but has a texture vaguely reminiscent of cork—much lighter than cement, and with better heat and sound-insulating properties. An experimental “ceramic tile” made of hemp has recently been produced (Fig. 27).
My husband has RSD and we are considering CBD oil -= I would ask at Hempmed because the spray won't have enough in it. Our dgt';s friend has ovarian cancer and it is shrinking her tumors but the spray would never have been enough. I would get CBD oil and check with Hempmeds to see what they suggest. It isn't cheap but it does work. LOW dose Naltrexone about 4.5 mg is very helpful for RSD and is usually used for getting people off of drugs but is working on turning off the glial cells that surround the nerve that is causing the nerve to scream in pain. We are also using PeaPure that is out of the Netherlands and we are seeing a response, even though small. His other leg touched the painful leg without causing more severe pain. That is progress. We also are using Poison Ivy Cream through Meadowlake Farms that has helped the burning surface pain. Change your diet and get rid of Gluten and Sugar, anything that causes inflammation. This is to allow your own body to work. Absolutely do not use any pain killers as it will turn up your pain. all the Hydrocodone, etc causes neural inflammation and so it will keep cascading higher your pain. Hope this is helpful. Mary
Concerns are frequently noted with new drug-drug interactions, but few have resulted in Sativex RCTs despite its adjunctive use with opiates, many other psychoactive analgesic, antidepressant and anticonvulsant drugs (Russo 2006a), possibly due to CBD ability to counteract sedative effects of THC (Nicholson et al 2004). No effects of THC extract, CBD extract or Sativex were observed in a study of effects on the hepatic cytochrome P450 complex (Stott et al 2005b). On additional study, at 314 ng/ml cannabinoid concentration, Sativex and components produced no significant induction on human CYP450 (Stott et al 2007). Thus, Sativex should be safe to use in conjunction with other drugs metabolized via this pathway.
Perhaps the most prevalent use for CBD is for pain management. The reality is that pain will affect everyone at some point in his or her life, and it’s comforting to know that there is a natural remedy that can help. The use of a natural remedy is especially important for those suffering from neuropathic pain and chronic pain – or pain that lasts for more than a few months. Chronic pain affects more than 3 million people in the United States every year – and the worst part? It can’t be cured. However, it can be treated and the irony is that in the United States, the most common medical treatments are nerve blocks, steroids, and narcotics (opioids) – many of which carry significant risk of side effects and addiction. Even over the counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like Aspirin and ibuprofen are dangerous when used regularly – hospitalizing over 100,000 people each year and killing approximately 15,000. However, dangerous narcotics and NSAIDs are not your only option for pain relief! In addition to physical therapy and self-care, you can incorporate CBD into your treatment regimen for natural, plant-based pain relief. CBD is fundamentally different than most prescribed painkillers, as it’s not addictive, non-toxic, and has very minimal (if any) side effects.
In 2014, President Obama signed the Farm Bill of 2014 into law. This law contained a section that removed hemp from Schedule 1 of the Controlled Substances Act. It also created a legal structure that made cultivation and research of hemp legal in states that wanted to initiate “Pilot Research Programs” into the cultivation and marketing of hemp and hemp-derived products.
The great positive impact of public health programs is widely acknowledged. Due in part to the policies and actions developed through public health, the 20th century registered a decrease in the mortality rates for infants and children and a continual increase in life expectancy in most parts of the world. For example, it is estimated that life expectancy has increased for Americans by thirty years since 1900,[55] and worldwide by six years since 1990.[56]
Topicals represent a newer emerging market in medical marijuana products geared toward health and beauty. Cannabinoids can be absorbed through the skin for certain therapeutic benefits without any psychoactivity. Additionally, the essential oils in hemp and cannabis provide many benefits for skin health. From moisturizers to shampoos and deodorants, medical cannabis products continue to diversify.

I wanted to tell people here that CBD has been very effective for my anxiety, and helps with insomnia. For me, it was a cumulative effect, after a week of one dropper of oil, I can sleep very well at night. I feel like I am not polluting my body with commercial pharmaceuticals. I wish everyone here the best, and hope it works for you as well as it has for me.
Executives from Canopy Growth CGC, -1.22% WEED, -1.27%  and rival Aurora Cannabis Inc. ACB, -0.88% ACB, -0.83%  both discussed their hemp operations on September-quarter earnings calls that included disappointing results related to early recreational pot sales. Aurora declined to comment on the latest developments and Canopy did not make executives available by the time of publication.

While most supplements have a single recommended dose, CBD is different. The amount of CBD you take depends on your doctor’s recommendations and your own research into how CBD will work for your unique needs. In general, it’s smart to start with a medium dose of CBD. This way, you can increase or decrease the dose as needed. In addition, it’s recommended to start with one half ML (half a dropper) of CBD oil, because you can always take more if needed.
There has been little high-quality research into the use of cannabidiol for epilepsy, and what there is is limited to refractory epilepsy in children.[16] While the results of using medical-grade cannabidiol in combination with conventional medication shows some promise, they did not lead to seizures being eliminated, and were associated with some minor adverse effects.[16]
"Even if DEA approves a permit, production might be discouraged because of the perceived difficulties of working through DEA licensing requirements and installing the types of structures necessary to obtain a permit. Obtaining a DEA permit to produce hemp requires that the applicant demonstrate that an effective security protocol will be in place at the production site, such as security fencing around the planting area, a 24-hour monitoring system, controlled access, and possibly armed guards to prevent public access.68 DEA application requirements also include a nonrefundable fee, FBI background checks, and extensive documentation. It could also be argued that the necessary time-consuming steps involved in obtaining and operating under a DEA permit, the additional management and production costs from installing structures, and other business and regulatory requirements could ultimately limit the operation’s profitability.
To make matters more confusing, nine states (including California, Washington, and Colorado) let residents buy cannabis-based products with or without THC. Nearly two dozen other “medical marijuana states” allow the sale of cannabis, including capsules, tinctures, and other items containing CBD or THC, at licensed dispensaries to people whose doctors have certified that they have an approved condition (the list varies by state but includes chronic pain, PTSD, cancer, autism, Crohn’s disease, and multiple sclerosis). Sixteen more states legalized CBD for certain diseases. But because all these products are illegal according to the federal government, cannabis advocates are cautious. “By and large, the federal government is looking the other way,” says Paul Armentano, deputy director of the Washington, DC–based National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML), but until federal laws are changed, “this administration or a future one could crack down on people who produce, manufacture, or use CBD, and the law would be on its side.”
Berenson thinks that we are far too sanguine about this link. He wonders how large the risk is, and what might be behind it. In one of the most fascinating sections of “Tell Your Children,” he sits down with Erik Messamore, a psychiatrist who specializes in neuropharmacology and in the treatment of schizophrenia. Messamore reports that, following the recent rise in marijuana use in the U.S. (it has almost doubled in the past two decades, not necessarily as the result of legal reforms), he has begun to see a new kind of patient: older, and not from the marginalized communities that his patients usually come from. These are otherwise stable middle-class professionals. Berenson writes, “A surprising number of them seemed to have used only cannabis and no other drugs before their breaks. The disease they’d developed looked like schizophrenia, but it had developed later—and their prognosis seemed to be worse. Their delusions and paranoia hardly responded to antipsychotics.”
“We would strongly warn against using a vaporizer to vape CBD hemp oil products because we haven’t seen one yet that doesn’t contain thinning agents that can be very toxic,” Lee said. “Thinning agents like propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol should not be in a product that you’re going to eat or inhale. Flavoring agents that are added to CBD hemp products should be a red flag. I think they should be avoided because the FDA hasn’t approved any of these flavoring agents for being heated and inhaled.”

The findings imply that cannabidiol can also be a healthy alternative for patients who have got accustomed to powerful painkiller doses. CBD does not have any steroid properties, and it is an anti-inflammatory drug that is less powerful than analgesics based on opioids. But, CBD is much more prescribed because of its non-side-effect causing properties.
CBD Pain Cream is here to help you live a higher quality life. If you suffer from pain, hypertension, or other conditions that leave you struggling to get through your day, this cream is here to help.  † Because, it uses the power of Cannabidiol to erase pain, discomfort, and other effects from conditions from the outside in. If you especially have pain in certain areas of your body, say your back from an injury or your hands from arthritis, CBD Pain Cream can seriously help you. †
Medical marijuana refers to the use of the Cannabis plant as a physician-recommended herbal therapy as well as synthetic[191] THC and cannabinoids. So far, the medical use of cannabis is legal only in a limited number of territories, including Canada,[38] Belgium, Australia, the Netherlands, Spain, and many U.S. states. This usage generally requires a prescription, and distribution is usually done within a framework defined by local laws. There is evidence supporting the use of cannabis or its derivatives in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, neuropathic pain, and multiple sclerosis. Lower levels of evidence support its use for AIDS wasting syndrome, epilepsy, rheumatoid arthritis, and glaucoma.[78]
At least 38 states considered legislation related to industrial hemp in 2018. These bills ranged from clarifying existing laws to establishing new licensing requirements and programs. At least six states – Alaska, Arizona, Kansas, Missouri, New Jersey and Oklahoma – enacted legislation in 2018 establishing hemp research and industrial hemp pilot programs. Georgia created the House Study Committee on Industrial Hemp Production. States, already allowing for industrial hemp programs, continued to consider policies related to licensure, funding, seed certification, and other issues. For example, Tennessee amended its Commercial Feed Law to include hemp. 
Some studies state that while there is no proof for the gateway hypothesis,[264] young cannabis users should still be considered as a risk group for intervention programs.[265] Other findings indicate that hard drug users are likely to be poly-drug users, and that interventions must address the use of multiple drugs instead of a single hard drug.[266] Almost two-thirds of the poly drug users in the "2009/10 Scottish Crime and Justice Survey" used cannabis.[267]
A few years ago, the National Academy of Medicine convened a panel of sixteen leading medical experts to analyze the scientific literature on cannabis. The report they prepared, which came out in January of 2017, runs to four hundred and sixty-eight pages. It contains no bombshells or surprises, which perhaps explains why it went largely unnoticed. It simply stated, over and over again, that a drug North Americans have become enthusiastic about remains a mystery.
The use of Cannabis for seed oil (Fig. 36) began at least 3 millennia ago. Hempseed oil is a drying oil, formerly used in paints and varnishes and in the manufacture of soap. Present cultivation of oilseed hemp is not competitive with linseed for production of oil for manufacturing, or to sunflower and canola for edible vegetable oil. However, as noted below, there are remarkable dietary advantages to hempseed oil, which accordingly has good potential for penetrating the salad oil market, and for use in a very wide variety of food products. There is also good potential for hemp oil in cosmetics and skin-care products.
Research suggests that CBD may exert some of its pharmacological action through its inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which may in turn increase the levels of endocannabinoids, such as anandamide, produced by the body.[7] It has also been speculated that some of the metabolites of CBD have pharmacological effects that contribute to the biological activity of CBD.[38]

The world-leading producer of hemp is China, which produces more than 70% of the world output. France ranks second with about a quarter of the world production. Smaller production occurs in the rest of Europe, Chile, and North Korea. Over 30 countries produce industrial hemp, including Australia, Austria, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Greece,[68] Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, the United Kingdom and Ukraine.[69][70]
A clinical endocannabinoid deficiency has been postulated to be operative in certain treatment-resistant conditions (Russo 2004), and has received recent support in findings that anandamide levels are reduced over controls in migraineurs (Sarchielli et al 2006), that a subset of fibromyalgia patients reported significant decreased pain after THC treatment (Schley et al 2006), and the active role of the ECS in intestinal pain and motility in irritable bowel syndrome (Massa and Monory 2006) wherein anecdotal efficacy of cannabinoid treatments have also been claimed. 

Our bodies contain two types of cannabinoid receptors that are aptly namely, cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2). CB1 receptors are found mostly in the brain. The CB2 receptors, on the other hand, are located throughout the body and play a significant role our immune systems, regulating pain and inflammation. In fact, nearly every type of human disease, including pain-related illnesses, involve some sort of change in CB2 function.
While the science behind CBD oil assuaged many of my concerns, Charlotte Figi's inspiring story was the kicker. Figi, a 6-year-old girl diagnosed with a rare and resistant form of epilepsy known as Dravet syndrome, was actually placed on hospice care and given a "do not resuscitate" order when her parents, desperate and frustrated with pharmaceutical medication, considered medical marijuana. Charlotte is now 99% seizure-free since she began supplementing with Charlotte Web's CBD oil, which the brand named after Figi.

An alternative to the gateway hypothesis is the common liability to addiction (CLA) theory. It states that some individuals are, for various reasons, willing to try multiple recreational substances. The "gateway" drugs are merely those that are (usually) available at an earlier age than the harder drugs. Researchers have noted in an extensive review that it is dangerous to present the sequence of events described in gateway "theory" in causative terms as this hinders both research and intervention.[271]
Hi, I am new to trying CBD oil for chronic pain. I really do not know where to begin . For 14 yrs now I have been living with chronic back pain. I have had surgery, numerous shots, etc. I have been on pain ( opiods) for 14 yrs. I am looking to find something not only for my pain, depression, not sleeping ,anxiety, etc. I know that most my problems come from my chronic pain and being on pain meds for so long. Can anyone please recommend a CBD oil product and strength for me. I have been reading all the reviews and I just need someone to help. I have talked to my Doctor about it and he feels that I should try, but didn’t recommend what.

Scientists in Europe and North America concluded that hemp seed is an excellent source of nutrition. Numerous anecdotal incidences cited improvements in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions such as rapid healing of skin lesions and relief from flu, inflammation, and allergies. The benefits were attributed to the presence of rich source of the EFAs linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid, and their respective biologic metabolites, GLA and stearidonic acid.9


The leaves, stems, flower buds and extracts from the marijuana plant can be eaten, brewed in a tea or put into a tincture. It can also be vaporized using an e-cigarette pen. Yale University researchers surveyed 3,847 Connecticut high school students about this practice in a 2015 study that was published in the journal Pediatrics. The study found nearly one in five e-cigarette users also have vaporize cannabis or byproducts like hash oil using the device. 

The great positive impact of public health programs is widely acknowledged. Due in part to the policies and actions developed through public health, the 20th century registered a decrease in the mortality rates for infants and children and a continual increase in life expectancy in most parts of the world. For example, it is estimated that life expectancy has increased for Americans by thirty years since 1900,[55] and worldwide by six years since 1990.[56]
Hemp has been grown for millennia in Asia and the Middle East for its fibre. Commercial production of hemp in the West took off in the eighteenth century, but was grown in the sixteenth century in eastern England.[147] Because of colonial and naval expansion of the era, economies needed large quantities of hemp for rope and oakum. In the early 1940s, world production of hemp fiber ranged from 250 000 to 350 000 metric tonnes, Russia was the biggest producer.[132]

"On February 6, 2004, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit permanently enjoined the enforcement of the final rule.65 The court stated that 'the DEA’s definition of ‘THC’ contravenes the unambiguously expressed intent of Congress in the CSA and cannot be upheld.'66 In late September 2004 the Bush Administration let the final deadline pass without filing an appeal."

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring compound found in the resinous flower of cannabis, a plant with a rich history as a medicine going back thousands of years. Today the therapeutic properties of CBD are being tested and confirmed by scientists and doctors around the world. A safe, non-addictive substance, CBD is one of more than a hundred “phytocannabinoids,” which are unique to cannabis and endow the plant with its robust therapeutic profile.

This product is not for use by or sale to persons under the age of 18. This product should be used only as directed on the label. It should not be used if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult with a physician before use if you have a serious medical condition or use prescription medications. A Doctor's advice should be sought before using this and any supplemental dietary product. All trademarks and copyrights are property of their respective owners and are not affiliated with nor do they endorse this product. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Individual weight loss results will vary. By using this site, you agree to follow the Privacy Policy and all Terms & Conditions printed on this site. Void Where Prohibited by Law. US GOVERNMENT PATENT #6,630,507: "CANNABINOIDS AS ANTIOXIDANTS AND NEUROPROTECTANTS
CBD Isolates/Concentrates: Anyone familiar with smoking hash or other cannabis concentrates like wax and BHO will be no stranger to this delivery method. Simply sprinkle some into a vaporizer or water pipe, ignite, inhale, and enjoy! We find that this option is useful for individuals looking to elevate their regular consumption of CBD-rich cannabis flowers or other smokable herbs.
The overall effect is not assured because, like cannabis — which is illegal under U.S. federal law although some states have allowed medical or recreational use — states will continue to be able to enact laws related to industrial hemp, allowing for a potential patchwork of legislation across the country. Other questions remain in terms of how exactly the Agriculture Department will regulate the plant.
Cannabis sativa is an annual wind-pollinated plant, normally dioecious and dimorphic, although sometimes monoecious (mostly in several modern European fiber cultivars). Figure 2 presents the basic morphology of the species. Some special hybrids, obtained by pollinating females of dioecious lines with pollen from monoecious plants, are predominantly female (so-called “all-female,” these generally also produce some hermaphrodites and occasional males). All-female lines are productive for some purposes (e.g. they are very uniform, and with very few males to take up space they can produce considerable grain), but the hybrid seed is expensive to produce. Staminate or “male” plants tend to be 10%–15% taller and are less robust than the pistillate or “female” (note the comparatively frail male in Fig. 3). So prolific is pollen production that an isolation distance of about 5 km is usually recommended for generating pure-bred foundation seed. A “perigonal bract” subtends each female flower, and grows to envelop the fruit. While small, secretory, resin-producing glands occur on the epidermis of most of the above-ground parts of the plant, the glands are very dense and productive on the perigonal bracts, which are accordingly of central interest in marijuana varieties. The root is a laterally branched taproot, generally 30–60 cm deep, up to 2.5 m in loose soils, very near the surface and more branched in wet soils. Extensive root systems are key to the ability of hemp crops to exploit deep supplies of nutrients and water. The stems are erect, furrowed, and usually branched, with a woody interior, and may be hollow in the internodes. Although the stem is often woody, the species is frequently referred to as a herb or forb. Plants vary enormously in height depending on genetic constitution and environment (Fig. 4), but are typically 1–5 m (heights of 12 m or more in cultivation have been claimed).
Fiberboard. In North America the use of nonwood fibers in sheet fiberboard (“pressboard” or “composite board”) products is relatively undeveloped. Flax, jute, kenaf, hemp, and wheat straw can be used to make composite board. Wheat straw is the dominant nonwood fiber in such applications. Although it might seem that hemp bast fibers are desirable in composite wood products because of their length and strength, in fact the short fibers of the hurds have been found to produce a superior product (K. Domier, pers. commun.). Experimental production of hemp fiberboard has produced extremely strong material (Fig. 22). The economic viability of such remains to be tested. Molded fiberboard products are commercially viable in Europe (Fig. 23), but their potential in North America remains to be determined.
Another claim is that Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America at that time, had invested heavily in DuPont's new synthetic fiber, nylon, and believed[dubious – discuss] that the replacement of the traditional resource, hemp, was integral to the new product's success.[128][133][134][135][136][137][138][139] The company DuPont and many industrial historians dispute a link between nylon and hemp, nylon became immediately a scarce commodity.[clarification needed] Nylon had characteristics that could be used for toothbrushes (sold from 1938) and very thin nylon fiber could compete with silk and rayon in various textiles normally not produced from hemp fiber, such as very thin stockings for women.[132][140][141][142][143]
^ Nadulski T, Pragst F, Weinberg G, Roser P, Schnelle M, Fronk EM, Stadelmann AM (December 2005). "Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study about the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the pharmacokinetics of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) after oral application of THC verses standardized cannabis extract". Ther Drug Monit. 27 (6): 799–810. doi:10.1097/01.ftd.0000177223.19294.5c. PMID 16306858.
Dr. Dustin Sulak is the founder and director of Integr8 Health, a network of holistic health clinics specializing in cannabis therapeutics with offices in Maine and Massachusetts. His educational work is featured on Healer.com, a free online patient information resource. This article is adapted from a recent talk given by Dr. Sulak in Portland, Maine, where he discussed the staggering scope of... Read more
Chronic pain: The body’s ECS plays a role in alleviating and managing pain, so CBD oil can work as a supplement for individuals with medical conditions that cause chronic pain, such as arthritis and multiple sclerosis. CBD oil also increases levels of adenosine in the brain; adenosine is a neurotransmitter that aids cardiovascular function and eases painful inflammation.
Fig. 8. Scanning electron micrographs of the abaxial surface of a perigonal bract (which envelops the fruit). These bracts are the most intoxicating part of the plant, and may contain 20% THC, dry weight. The resin is synthesized both in stalked and sessile glands. Multicellular secretory glands (of phallic appearance), some broken stalks of these (note cellular appearance), and unicellular cystolith hairs (claw-like structures) are pictured. Fig. 9. Some important cannabinoids of cannabis resin. D9-THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol) is the chief intoxicant chemical and predominates in intoxicant strains, while the isomer D8-THC is usually present in no more than trace amounts. CBD (cannabidiol) is the chief non-intoxicant chemical, and predominates in non-intoxicant strains; it has sedative effects. The non-intoxicant CBN (cannabinol) is a frequent degradation or oxidation product. The non-intoxicant cannabichromene (CBC) is typically found in trace amounts in intoxicant strains. The non-intoxicant cannabigerol (CBG) is considered to be a precursor of the other cannbinoids (see Fig. 10).

The Hemp Industries Association (HIA) is a non-profit trade association representing more than one-thousand (1,000) supporters, farmers and business members serving the hemp industries since 1994.  The hemp industries are primed to once again become a major global economic force as a result of new applications and opportunities that are in demand. Hemp is a sustainable choice for industrial products, textiles, and also offer exceptional ingredients and components for nutrition and wellness products.  Hemp is one of our planet's most important natural resources, and we advocate for the whole plant.


Feminized cannabis seeds are designed to produce only female plants.Usually, a cannabis seed can develop into a male or female plant; the entire process is determined by the sex expressing X and Y chromosomes. "Feminization" is a process of conditioning female plants to obtain male pollen needed for seed production.A plant with two X chromosomes will be female 99% of the time, while regular cannabis seeds (XY genetic set) sometimes have a tendency to produce more male than female individuals.


Particular difficulties face the clinician managing intractable patients afflicted with cancer-associated pain, neuropathic pain, and central pain states (eg, pain associated with multiple sclerosis) that are often inadequately treated with available opiates, antidepressants and anticonvulsant drugs. Physicians are seeking new approaches to treatment of these conditions but many remain concerned about increasing governmental scrutiny of their prescribing practices (Fishman 2006), prescription drug abuse or diversion. The entry of cannabinoid medicines to the pharmacopoeia offers a novel approach to the issue of chronic pain management, offering new hope to many, but also stoking the flames of controversy among politicians and the public alike.
Scott Shannon, M.D., assistant clinical professor at the University of Colorado, recently sifted through patient charts from his four-doctor practice to document CBD’s effects on anxiety. His study, as yet unpublished, found “a fairly rapid decrease in anxiety scores that appears to persist for months,” he says. But he says he can’t discount a placebo effect, especially since “there’s a lot of hype right now.”
Hi, I have had spondylolisthesis since age 11 which left me with extreme nerve pain...restless leg syndrome. Had 3 spinal ops and also had hip surgery 2 years ago. have asthma and hypothyroidism. I can deal with everything else but this nerve pain is insane. Used Gabapentin for 9 years and now its not in the market in Nairobi, Kenya where I live. Am on Lyrica, which is not working. I started Cbd oil in August but now found my body has become immune to the effects of pain releif I was getting. Can anyone suggest what strength oil/cbd supplement I should aim for? Currently am making flapjacks with weed, have one every night but this makes me high which I dont want. I still wake up in pain at night, please help.
The first of Berenson’s questions concerns what has long been the most worrisome point about cannabis: its association with mental illness. Many people with serious psychiatric illness smoke lots of pot. The marijuana lobby typically responds to this fact by saying that pot-smoking is a response to mental illness, not the cause of it—that people with psychiatric issues use marijuana to self-medicate. That is only partly true. In some cases, heavy cannabis use does seem to cause mental illness. As the National Academy panel declared, in one of its few unequivocal conclusions, “Cannabis use is likely to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia and other psychoses; the higher the use, the greater the risk.”

It is not surprising that male-associated markers are relatively abundant. In dioecious plants where sex chromosomes have not been identified, markers for maleness indicate either the presence of sex chromosomes which have not been distinguished by cytological methods or that the marker is tightly linked to a gene involved in sex determination.[15]
Unfortunately due to the disappointing and down right inaccurate position of the federal government in classifying Cannabis as a schedule one drug, most research institutions risk federal funding if they conduct real research on Cannabis. This has dramatically limited the potential for real research by real scientists to be conducted. That research is critical to better understanding the multitude of therapeutic effects of the various chemical constituents found in Cannabis.

High-CBD strains tend to deliver very clear-headed, functional effects without the euphoric high associated with high-THC strains. They’re typically preferred by consumers who are extremely sensitive to the side effects of THC (e.g., anxiety, paranoia, dizziness). A high-CBD strain would also be a great choice for someone needing to medicate throughout the day to control pain, inflammation, anxiety, or other chronic conditions.
Are users smoking less, to compensate for the drug’s new potency? Or simply getting more stoned, more quickly? Is high-potency cannabis more of a problem for younger users or for older ones? For some drugs, the dose-response curve is linear: twice the dose creates twice the effect. For other drugs, it’s nonlinear: twice the dose can increase the effect tenfold, or hardly at all. Which is true for cannabis? It also matters, of course, how cannabis is consumed. It can be smoked, vaped, eaten, or applied to the skin. How are absorption patterns affected?
In Canada, the methodology used for analyses and sample collection for THC analysis of hemp plantings is standardized (at the Health Canada/Therapeutics Program/Hemp web site at www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb-dgps/therapeut/htmleng/hemp.html, see “Industrial Hemp Technical Manual” for procedures on sampling plant materials and chemical procedures for determining THC levels). The regulations require that one of the dozen independent laboratories licensed for the purpose conduct the analyses and report the results to Health Canada. Sample collection is also normally carried out by an independent authorized firm. The Canadian system of monitoring THC content has rigidly limited hemp cultivation to cultivars that consistently develop THC levels below 0.3%.
That being said, it was unlikely that the federal government was interested in pursuing individuals complying with state-mandated regulations surrounding legalized cannabis for recreational use, although the CSA law still gives them authority to do so. However, the new Trump administration may change this thinking and users of legal marijuana and legal dispensaries await further action and clarifying rules.

"Hemp was widely grown in the United States from the colonial period into the mid-1800s. Fine and coarse fabrics, twine, and paper from hemp were in common use. By the 1890s, labor-saving machinery for harvesting cotton made the latter more competitive as a source of fabric for clothing, and the demand for coarse natural fibers was met increasingly by imports. Industrial hemp was handled in the same way as any other farm commodity in that USDA compiled statistics and published crop reports33 and provided assistance to farmers promoting production and distribution.34 In the early 1900s, hemp continued to be grown, and USDA researchers continued to publish information related to hemp production and also reported on hemp’s potential for use in textiles and in paper manufacturing.35 Several hemp advocacy groups, including HIA and Vote Hemp, Inc., have compiled other historical information and have copies of original source documents.36
The self-medication hypothesis was not supported in either the van Os or Henquet studies. Both studies found that early psychotic symptoms did not predict an increased risk of using cannabis (as is required by the self-medication hypothesis). The direction of the relationships was from early cannabis use to psychosis. Their negative results have recently been supported by Verdoux et al. (2002), who examined the temporal relationship between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms using an experience sampling method. They asked 79 college students to report on their drug use and experience of psychotic symptoms at randomly selected time points, several times each day over 7 consecutive days. The sample included high cannabis users (n = 41) and an over-representation of students identified as vulnerable to psychosis (n = 16). Verdoux and colleagues found that in time periods when cannabis was used, users reported more unusual perceptions, and these relationships were stronger in vulnerable individuals. There was no temporal relationship between reporting unusual experiences and using cannabis use, as would be predicted by the self-medication hypothesis.
The earliest recorded uses date from the 3rd millennium BC.[32] Since the early 20th century, cannabis has been subject to legal restrictions. The possession, use, and sale of cannabis is illegal in most countries of the world.[33][34] Medical cannabis refers to the physician-recommended use of cannabis, which takes place in Canada, Belgium, Australia, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, and 33 U.S. states.[35][36] In September 2018, cannabis was legalized in South Africa[37] while Canada legalized recreational use of cannabis in October 2018.[38]

“Geotextiles” or “agricultural textiles” include (1) ground-retaining, biodegradable matting designed to prevent soil erosion, especially to stabilize new plantings while they develop root systems along steep highway banks to prevent soil slippage (Fig. 32); and (2) ground-covers designed to reduce weeds in planting beds (in the manner of plastic mulch). At present the main materials used are polymeric (polythene, spun-blown polypropylene) and some glass fiber and natural fibers. Both woven and non-woven fibers can be applied to geotextiles; woven and knitted materials are stronger and the open structure may be advantageous (e.g. in allowing plants to grow through), but non-wovens are cheaper and better at suppressing weeds. Flax and hemp fibers exposed to water and soil have been claimed to disintegrate rapidly over the course of a few months, which would make them unacceptable for products that need to have long-term stability when exposed to water and oil. Coco (coir) fiber has been said to be much more suitable, due to higher lignin content (40%–50%, compared to 2%–5% in bast fibers); these are much cheaper than flax and hemp fibers (Karus et al. 2000). However, this analysis does not do justice to the developing hemp geotextile market. Production of hemp erosion control mats is continuing in both Europe and Canada. Given the reputation for rot resistance of hemp canvas and rope, it seems probable that ground matting is a legitimate use. Moreover, the ability to last outdoors for many years is frequently undesirable in geotextiles. For example, the widespread current use of plastic netting to reinforce grass sod is quite objectionable, the plastic persisting for many years and interfering with lawn care. Related to geotextile applications is the possibility of using hemp fiber as a planting substrate (biodegradable pots and blocks for plants), and as biodegradable twine to replace plastic ties used to attach plants to supporting poles. Still another consideration is the “green ideal” of producing locally for local needs; by this credo, hemp is preferable in temperate regions to the use of tropical fibers, which need to be imported.
There are many ways to prepare cannabis for consumption. And while final marijuana products may come in many forms, each aims to provide rich concentrations of the terpenes, cannabinoids, and other desirable compounds the marijuana plant produces. From the simple process of drying and curing marijuana flowers, to the sophisticated chemistry of producing cannabis concentrates, here’s a guide to the most common forms of cannabis.
In a Phase II double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 5-week study of 56 rheumatoid arthritis patients with Sativex (Blake et al 2006), employed nocturnal treatment only to a maximum of 6 sprays per evening (16.2 mg THC + 15 mg CBD). In the final treatment week, morning pain on movement, morning pain at rest, DAS-28 measure of disease activity, and SF-MPQ pain at present all favored Sativex over placebo (Table 1).
The great positive impact of public health programs is widely acknowledged. Due in part to the policies and actions developed through public health, the 20th century registered a decrease in the mortality rates for infants and children and a continual increase in life expectancy in most parts of the world. For example, it is estimated that life expectancy has increased for Americans by thirty years since 1900,[55] and worldwide by six years since 1990.[56]
The confusion compounds when one realizes that in today’s popular lexicon, the terms indica, sativa, and hybrid tend to indicate a set of effects, rather than the taxonomy of a particular strain. But that’s just as well. Most marijuana strains today, especially those under commercial cultivation, are genetic hybrids. Only a handful of pure, or “landrace” cannabis strains are in circulation.
With that stereotype now changing in addition to the outbreak of legal marketplaces in 33 states, we’re seeing a boom in cross-industry trends where major corporate and investment players are starting to enter the cannabis sector or at least signal willingness to do so. These trends are proving so strong that companies are starting to think it’s important to get in the game or risk being left behind later. That’s why major brands are either dipping a toe into the water or laying the groundwork for a cannonball-level splash when the Green Rush finally breaks.
A 100-gram portion of hulled hemp seeds supplies 586 calories. They contain 5% water, 5% carbohydrates, 49% total fat, and 31% protein. Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value (DV) of protein per 100-gram serving.[20] Hemp seeds are a rich source of dietary fiber (20% DV), B vitamins, and the dietary minerals manganese (362% DV), phosphorus (236% DV), magnesium (197% DV), zinc (104% DV), and iron (61% DV). About 73% of the energy in hempseed is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids,[20] mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, oleic, and alpha-linolenic acids.[21]
×